Spread a dough with a rolling pin to give it the desired thickness (it becomes lower - abaisser means lowering in French).
Drink forbidden in France in 1915.
Was authorized again in 1988 if the level of Thuyone (toxic in high proportion) was less than 10 mg/l and the drink was not labelled “absinthe”.
Since 2006 can again be named “absinthe” (still with the cap on Thuyone).
Level of alcohol (45 % to 72 %) is free.
So you might see again people flamber some sugar spread with absinthe before having it mixed into water.
Additif alimentaire (food additives)
Those authorized in the European Union are part of "positive" lists (all others are banned).
They must be included in the composition of a product.
Here are the main categories:
E1: Dyes. Of natural or synthetic origin, they artificially add color to food.
E2: Preservatives. Of natural or synthetic origin. They slow down the development of micro-organisms, moulds and bacteria. Note the sulfites (E220 to E228) used in particular for wine. As well as malic acid (E296) sometimes used to balance the taste of wines in hot climates.
E3 : Antioxidants or antioxidants and acidifiers. They delay oxidation and/or correct acidity. Note the tartaric acid (E334) sometimes also used for the taste of wine.
E4 : Texture agents (gelling agents...). Note E422 Glycerol, E428 Gelatin, E440 Pectins...
E5 : Thickeners and acidifiers.
E6 : Taste enhancers. Note the glutamates from E620 to E625.
E7 : Antibiotics
E9 : Antifoaming agents, glazes... and sweeteners. Note E951 Aspartame, E960 Stevia...
The French association Que Choisir has put online an evaluation of additives (in French) :
But there are also processing aids, which do NOT appear on the composition of the product.
Age (vintage) best suited for pairing
If the vintage of the wine is within the indicated range,
the wine is likely suite to the dish.
It is of course an approximation which can vary depending on the vintage, and the winegrowers.
Préparez l'aïoli :
Épluchez et dégermez 3 gousses d'ail.
Écrasez-les avec un pilon dans un mortier ou avec un passez-les au petit mixeur.
Ajoutez 1 c. à café de moutarde et les 2 jaunes d'œuf d'extra-frais (moins de 9 jours).
Montez comme une mayonnaise au batteur - ou dans le mixeur - en ajoutant progressivement l'huile d'olive en filet.
Salez et poivrez.
Détendez avec quelques gouttes de jus de citron.
Comme une mayonnaise, évitez de le stocker au réfrigérateur, ou dumoins pas dans sa partie la plus froide.
Ne conservez pas plus d'une journée (l'œuf est cru).
L'aïoli accompagne parfaitement viande froide, légumes froids, poisson froid…
1845-1894. Emperor of Russia
Queen of the Francs after her wedding to Louis VII.
Then Queen of England after her wedding to Henri Plantagenet (later called Henri II)
This dish may contain one or more ingredients that do not suit the intolerance you have indicated.
However, we still suggest this dish, because you can modify the recipe by not using the ingredient, or by simply replacing it with another.
Carefully reread the recipe.
Spice quite rare.
It's the Jamaica pepper (Pimenta dioica).
If you do not have real allspice, you can replace it with a finely chopped ginger (or cinnamon), clove, nutmeg, and pepper mixture.
These mixtures all made are also often sold under the name "four spices".
Alphonse de Lamartine
1790-1869. Poet and French writer.
Part of romantic writers.
In Greek mythology, ambrosia is a divine, exquisite substance ("9 times sweeter than honey") that provided immortality to those who took it. Ambrosia was solid, while nectar was liquid.
L’Ambroisie is a restaurant located Place des Vosges in Paris since 1986 in the heart of the Marais. In this true jewel of French high class gastronomy "3 Michelin stars", BERNARD PACAUD practices a culinary art combining tradition and elegance, and imagination and selection of the most beautiful products for a marvelous cuisine.
Ambrosia is finally a wild plant from North America, which in recent years has experienced a spectacular development in many departments in France. This invasive species threatens ecosystems, and its pollen is responsible for allergies.
Appellation d'Origine Controllée (European synonimous : AOP Appellation d'Origine Protégée). = Protected Designation of Origin. (PDO) See Indication géographique.
See Indication géographique
Roman foodie, lived during the 1rst century before Christ.
See Indication géographique
Artificial flavors can "trick the taste buds", disrupt taste messages, promote eating disorders and confuse satiety.
Be careful with words.
For example in Europe:
"Vanilla flavor": usually 100% artificial.
"Natural vanilla flavor": synthesized (biotechnology) from a natural product, such as a bacterium. Often a derivative of cow dung. The product packaging may eventually include a statement "no artificial flavoring".
"Natural vanilla flavor": presence of REAL vanilla (about 200 aromatic components). It is a climbing orchid (originally Mexican), fermented and then dried; nearly 2 years of preparation.
Strong and nice scents (directly perceived by the nose or through retro-olfaction).
Choose them freshly picked; cutting at the base gives an idea (there should be not oxidation brown).
White, purple or green or white asparagus, it's just a question of more exposure to the outside air. (The taste differs only a little). The purple ones will turn green after cooking.
Peel them with a peeler, starting from the head.
Remove the base by breaking it.
Rinse asparagus well with cold water.
You can tie them in fagots with a string to be able to remove them all at once at the end of cooking.
Cook them (boiling water, steam …).
Then cool them to stop cooking, which should not be excessive.
Asparagus gives a sulfur odor to some people's urine, but this is only perceived by some folks.
Asparagus was nicknamed "lovers' javelins". There is also around the mediterranean sea a wild asparagus : asparagus acutifolius. Very thin it does not to be peeled.
Decimus Ausonus, nicknamed "Ausone".
Latin Poet who lived in a villa near Saint-Emilion. His poems are often about food and wine.
Of the famous wines of Saint-Emilion is named after him : Château Ausone.
L'avocat est un fruit climactérique, c’est-à-dire qui mûrit après cueillette.
Mieux vaut le stocker hors du réfrigérateur, ou au moins dans le bac à légume.
Hors du réfrigérateur, il continue donc à mûrir, et le processus s'accèlère quand il est emballé dans du papier.
Mûr, il devient tendre sous la main, et le pédoncule tombe ou s'arrache facilement.
Une fois ouvert, il noircit rapidement, surtout en purée, et surtout si la purée a été chauffée par un mixeur.
L'oxydation est moindre si on l'écrase à la fourchette, et si on lui mélange un acide (citron, vinaigre…) et si on laisse le noyau en contact de la purée.
L'avocat contient de 18 à 25% de matière grasse. Inutile donc d'ajouter de l'huile dans les préparations.
On cultive des avocats en Corse ou dans les Antilles.
La culture est fort consommatrice d'eau, surtout pour les gros avocats. L'excès de consommation est donc devenu un enjeux écologique, a fortiori quand les avocats viennent de très loin (bilan carbonne).
En Europe on préfère le consommer d'octobre à mars.
Cooking method, or reheating, consisting of putting the food in a container (saucepan,…) itself placed in a larger one containing a maximum of water, kept at low boiling.
Thus, it is certain that the food will not be cooked more than 100 ° C and in a humid atmosphere.
Can be done on, or in the oven.
Barde / Barder (cuisine)
Thin slice of lard (bacon) used to wrap a meat or others, or to line the inside of a cocotte, terrine… Will bring a bit of taste but mostly prevents the meat (or other) to dry during cooking.
In a saucepan melt 25 g of butter.
Add 2 tablespoons of flour off the heat, stirring with 1 whisk.
Return to medium heat and pour in small quantities of hot (if possible) milk, while beating (until the mixture thickens).
Adjust the quantity of milk to the desired smoothness.
This is the sauce invented to flatter the Marquis de Béchameil, Maître d'hôtel of King Louis XIV.
But another version mentions the son of the Marquis, a great good food lover and Maître d'hôtel of "Monsieur", the brother of King Louis XIV.
Male adult over 24 months and neutered.
To be tasty, it needs maturation. After slaughter, the muscle is flexible, but it stiffens quickly in the cold room.
Glycogen it contains then turns into lactic acid. This activates enzymes that break down muscle proteins and soften them. In addition, many aroma precursors are released. This maturation transforms the muscle into tasty meat.
Maturation has no appreciable effect on pieces containing a lot of collagen (essentially the hindquarters of the animal). They are then tenderized with long cooking/simmering.
Probably invented in China (made from rice), 7000 BC, at about the same time as mead, but before wine (although it is more complex to make than these).
It was not until sedentarization and agriculture that beer was invented.
It then spread rapidly around the world. It is found in -5000 in Mesopotamia, and in Europe much before the importation of wine. Beer was named "cervoise" in France.
The cereal starch used, whatever it is, can not ferment. The seed must first begin to germinate (with some water and heat) for the enzymes to convert its starch into sugars (which would be used by the plant before it has a sufficient root system); just germinated seeds are called "malt".
These sugars, they can ferment.
We then heat this malt (ground sugar and with some water) to stop the process (depending on the temperature used, we will get a "lager", "amber" or "brown" beer).
- sometimes other sugars (honey, date juice ...) which will increase the degree of alcohol (chaptalization),
- aromas (hops that bring bitterness ...). Hops will also help fortify (stabilize) the beer.
The malt is then wetted with water, and yeasts are added.
Under the effect of yeasts, sugars are transformed into alcohol and carbon dioxide (bubbles).
The process is then stopped by removing the yeasts by filtering (usually while the beer still contains 30 to 40 g / l of sugar, so that the taste remains balanced).
Some (industrial) beers are pasteurized.
The beer is then stored in the absence of air, and it can be preserved.
Beer was drunk for a long time in large community pots using long individual straws (a communal experience!).
In a Champagne flute (or carafe), pour:
-1/3 of cold white peach puree,
-2/3 of Champagne or an effervescent cold white (a leftover of wine, even with a small defect, may be suitable).
Mix very gently to keep the bubbles.
In the summer, make your own puree: peel and mix ripe fruit, then chill in the fridge and filter.
In winter, use peaches in syrup or a premade and refreshed puree.
Some strengthen the Bellini with a little bit of Cognac delicately poured on the surface (pour on the back of a spoon).
The story goes that this Venetian cocktail was named by its inventor, Giuseppe Cipriani, after the color of a Saint's toga, on a painting by the 15th century painter Bellini.
Monks following the rules of Saint Benoit.
Beurre blanc sauce (white butter)
Cut 250 g butter (salted quality butter is the best) into small cubes.
Peel and finely chop 4 shallots.
Crush 5 peppercorns.
Pour in a small saucepan shallots, 5 cl of wine vinegar, crushed pepper and 5 cl of white wine.
Boil and let reduce until only 1/4 of the original volume remains.
Let cool away from the heat.
Gradually add the pre-cut butter while whisking briskly over a very low heat (possibly in a bain-marie). Especially at the beginning, each piece must have completely melted before adding the next one.
The white butter should not boil -ideally 45 ° C (115 °F)- you should be able to keep the palm of your hand against the wall of the pan without getting burned).
Correct (salt / pepper) the seasoning.
The white butter can, if you wish (it's a pity), be filtered through a colander to remove the shallots.
To maintain the consistency of the white butter, don't suddenly change its temperature (keep it in a bain-marie, avoid to introduce a cold metal spoon, warm up any gravy boat with some hot water.). If you need to keep it for some time, add 1 tsp. crème fraîche at the end and stir a bit. But remove it from the bain-marie else it would break.
This sauce would be an invention of the cook Clémence Lefeuvre (1860-1932). She ran a restaurant near Nantes where one could taste good fish from the Loire.
A very fragrant variant is to put a few chopped basil leaves with the shallot, then a little white port (almost totally reduced). Another is to add 1 tbsp. of fish stock reduced at a glaze level, after adding all the butter.
A "beurre Nantais" sauce is a white butter sauce where the vinegar is replaced by white wine from the location (Muscadet or Gros plant). You can also choose a butter from Nantes.
You must use a small sauce whisk (soft and thin). But some purists use a ladle to avoid incorporating any air.
If you drink a very good wine, serve little sauce (its acidity "kills" the wine).
Taillez 300 g de beurre salé en petits cubes.
Pressez le jus d'un citron.
Dans une casserole, faites réduire de moitié le jus
puis refroidissez-le avec 1 c. à soupe d'eau froide.
À feu très doux, ou bien au bain-marie, ajoutez au citron, par petites quantités, les cubes de beurre en battant au fouet.
Contrôlez la température avec le plat de la main contre la paroi de la casserole. La température doit rester à environ 45 °C.
Incorporez progressivement tout le beurre.
Assaisonnez (sel & piment de Cayenne).
Réservez au chaud (bain-marie).
Beurre noisette (browned)
Warm up the butter in a pan.
When it is still foaming, and just starting to brown a bit, it is “noisette” (hazelnut).
(We’re not aiming at making a beurre noir – black butter).
Bicarbonate de soude
Le bicarbonate de soude est légèrement alcalin (basique).
C'est le composant essentiel de la levure chimique.
En cuisson il libère du gaz carbonique, ce qui fait lever les pâtes.
Il est parfois utilisé pour gazéifier certaines boissons (Les anglo-saxons parlent de "baking soda").
Sous forme alimentaire certains l'utilisent dans l'eau pour la cuisson de légumes verts.
Mais une cuisson courte, sans couvercle, dans un grand volume d'eau salée, suivie d'un rafraichissement pour stopper la cuisson, parvient au même résultat.
Ajouté dans un plat sale (gras), même après cuisson, et mis à trempé dans l'eau, le bicarbonate permet un lavage simplifié. (Par exemple plat de fondue savoyarde, plaque de four…).
After the 1st world war chemistry begins to take an important place in the agricultural world. Fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides ... are widely introduced. In response, Rudolf Steiner, an Austrian humanist, gave a series of lectures in 1924 advocating alternative agricultural techniques, some sometimes millennia old. This is what we will call "biodynamic".
As with organic farming, biodynamics prohibits any chemistry (fertilizer, herbicide, fungicide, pesticide). Wine must therefore be organic in order to be biodynamic.
But biodynamics goes much further. On the one hand, it considers that culture must interact with nature, as the different organs of all living beings interact with each other. Biodiversity is fundamental. Thus decoctions of certain plants are used to reinforce resistance to diseases, preparations based on cow horns make it possible to maintain the richness of the soil ... In addition, it puts the focus on the energy of plants to optimize their health. The astral calendar (moon and others) is thus used to perform certain activities. Living beings and energy, this is the origin of the word "biodynamic".
Certain activities of the biodynamic winemaker sometimes might make you smile. But the benefits of nettle liquid, the influence of the moon on seedling growth ... have been known for a very long time. In addition, some of the estates producing the greatest wines are known to be biodynamic (Domaine de la Romanée Conti, Coulée de Serrant, Zind-Humbrecht, Leflaive, etc.). Finally, biodynamics is defined by precise specifications that the winemaker undertakes to follow.
Several certifying organizations are responsible for verifying adherence to the specifications and then authorize the winemaker to put their logo on the label.
-Demeter, who is of German origin, and deals with many types of agricultural products, including wine.
-Biodyvin is a French organization dedicated to wine.
Black butter sauce
In a very hot frying pan, put 125 g of butter.
Shake it a bit until it finishes foaming and starts browning.
Then cautiously add 5 cl Xérès vinegar, a bit of salt, a bit of freshly ground pepper and 1 tbsp. cappers.
Finish by adding 25 g fresh butter and beat with a whisk.
See maximum level of alcohol when driving. (Taux légal maximum d'alcoolémie au volant)
Boire en Suisse ("drink in Switzerland")
Drink alone and in a hidden way (drink with the flies). In the middle-age, in French towns, a servant was often dispatched with a pitcher to get some wine. The servant then used to have a sip at the shop. In Paris, merchants were often former Swiss soldiers, this could explain where this expression (drink in Switzerland) comes from .
Botrytis cinerea (vin)
See noble rot
Different capacities exist:
Chopine (Pint, capacity varies), fillette (little girl, 375 cl or others), 75 cl bottle, liter, magnum (1.5 l), double magnum or jeroboam (3 l). After, designations vary according to the regions: rehoboam…
The reason for a capacity of 75 cl is the subject of many theories.
The most credible seems to be the following:
It is simply a practical and historic one.
At one time, main customers of French vineyards were the English.
But our British neighbors never had the same measurement system as us.
Their unit called "imperial gallon" was precisely 4.54609 liters.
However, they transported Bordeaux in 50-gallon barrels, or 225 l when rounding.
With 75 cl bottles, you can divide a barrel into 300 bottles.
(300 is a much easier figure to make calculations than 225.)
So we had: 1 barrel = 50 gallons = 300 bottles.
Thus, one gallon is equivalent to 6 bottles.
This would also explain why, even today, cases of wine are mostly sold by 6 or 12 bottles.
Bouchon liège (vin)
The corks come from the bark of the cork oak (Quercus Suber L.).
The bark is removed about every 10 years, without cutting the tree, and the bark will reform. The corks are totally recyclable and the forests, mainly located in Portugal, are wonderful CO2 traps. (Better carbon footprint of the cork stopper than plastic or screw cap).
Cork is light, waterproof (liquids and gases), compressible and elastic, insulating... It has been used to stopper wine containers since Roman times (then in competition with wax), but it became widespread from the 18th century with the development of modern bottles.
Trichloroanisole (TCA), non toxic, can from a few nano grams (depending on the individual) give a musty smell and taste to the wine ("cork taste"). This is why, after detecting a corked wine, change your glass. Present in nature, TCA can be carried by any type of real cork (single piece or agglomerated). If precautions are taken (manufacturer and winemaker), the rate of bottles where one can perceive the taste of cork drops to a few %, even less.
Different qualities of corks exist (fewer holes caused by insects penetrating the tree, and greater length) for wines that deserve to be kept longer. However, some great domains propose a change of cork every 25 or 30 years, as the cork loses its elasticity. To uncork a very old bottle, a bilame is preferable to a classic corkscrew.
The bottles should be kept horizontally, in an ideal cellar (humid) so that the cork remains humid and allows the wine to age well.
2 sprigs of thyme, 1 bay leaf and 3 tails of parsley, all tied up so you can then be easily removed.
To which you can add, according to availability: leek green, rosemary, sage, coriander leaves, celery branch, oregano leaves ...
For long cooking, in order not to find pieces or grains of bouquet in the dish, you can wrap it in a fine linen tied, or a steel tea ball …
Simmer slowly, in an open container.
Originally owned by beer brewers.
Place where you can eat at any time (which is not the case of classic French restaurant or cafe. Between lunch and dinner there is a "coupure" - break). The dishes are suitable for this (ready immediately, or simple to warm).
In France there are 3 families of bread made in "boulangeries" - bakeries (protected term that guarantees kneading, fermentation, shaping and baking on site), as opposed to the products of "hot spots" (where frozen industrial dough is baked):
-"Pain Maison" (home made bread):
Petriformed, shaped and baked onsite, but using a flour that may contain additives (to speed up production and improve preservation). It can be frozen at onepoint. A good baguette must have sharp ends (a sign of hand shaping).
Pure flour without additives, yeast, water and salt (only tolerated improvers, in very small quantity: bean flour, soy flour, wheat malt ...). Little kneaded and long fermentation (which are the quality criteria). Freezing is prohibited.
The weight must be displayed (usually 200 to 250 g for the "baguette" and 200 g for the "flute").
For the contest of the best baguette of Paris, it must be between 250 and 300 g and 55 to 65 cm. "Baguette" is a classic bread in Paris since the city has a high density since many centuries. (Baking large loafs request a long baking time which would create to much smoke).
-"Pain au levain" (Sourdough bread):
Yeast is replaced by levain that generates more complex aromas. Levain bread is more acidic (pH 3.5 to 4.5) than normal bread (pH around 5.7). It can be kept for a longer time. The long fermentation allows to put less salt and makes gluten more digestible.
How to recognize quality bread ?
Good bread should be dense (otherwise it is a sign of very white flour, intense kneading and abuse of enzymes and additives). The crust should be crispy, the crumb should be ivory (not white) with irregular cells.
Organic bread must be made with ... organic ingredients (but it may contain authorized additives).
Bread "bien cuit" - well done (as opposed to soft and white bread) requires longer chewing, and is more digestible.
See also "Flour".
This dish is suitable for a breastfeeding woman, for the future of her child.
Concerning the drink, ALCOHOL IS PROHIBITED because it passes into breast milk, so we propose for the mother:
As an aperitif, a citrus juice (orange, grapefruit, lemon...), or a vegetable juice or cocktail (Mocktail) (tomato/celery, cucumber/mint, parsley, carrot/cumin).
At the table, prefer a vegetable juice (and/or water).
With fresh goat's cheese, offer a tomato juice. With a dry goat's cheese, a honey or lavender drink.
With blue cheeses (Bleu, Roquefort...) serve a pear, apricot or plum nectar.
With cheeses with a soft paste & flowered/bloomy rind (Camembert, Brie...) as well as soft paste & washed rind (Munster...) offer an apple juice (cider w/o alcohol).
For dessert, try a slightly sweet seasonal fruit juice (strawberry, raspberry, pear...).
Finish with an infusion, or coffee (potentially decaffeinated).
1755 - 1856. Jean Anthelme is a famous French foodie who wrote the "physiologie du goût" (physiology of taste), which contains some famous aphorisms.
It sets out 4 conditions for the "pleasure of the table" (to be distinguished from the pleasure of eating which only satisfies hunger and appetite):
- food at least passable,
- fine wine,
- friendly people,
- sufficient time.
The Excelsior cheese was renamed Brillat-Savarin in his honor.
Sparkling wine (Champagne…) without any added sugar and containing less than 3 g/l of residual sugar. Synonymous: zéro-dosage, non dosé… (see dosage).
Brut (wine, cider)
Sparkling wine (champagne…) containing less than 12 g/l of sugar. (see dosage). For a cider this means less than 28 g/l of sugar.
Invention dates back to at least 3000 years ago in India. It comes from the churning of cream, and the separation of butter-milk.
There are several types of butter.
Raw milk (or rather raw cream) has more taste than pasteurized milk. (But don't expect raw or cooked to affect vitamin D content). Be careful, it only can be kept for 2-3 weeks, compared with 2-3 months for pasteurized butter.
All the butters freeze well, but it damages them a bit. But when you have the opportunity to buy quality butter, do not hesitate to buy a lot of it and freeze some of it.
The more yellow the butter, the more it contains carotene (question of feeding of cows and therefore of season) and is rich in vitamin A. Historically butter was:
-soft, golden and vegetal in summer,
-and more ivory and less rich in taste in winter.
However now a butter can be colored artificially...
In France pasteurized butter can be:
- without designation (no constraints)
- "Fin" (30% max of frozen cream)
- "Extra-Fin" (quick collect of milk, and without any frozen cream)
"Doux" (Sweet) means without salt. Allows to make scented butters (e.g. with sorrel) without oxidation.
"Demi sel" (½ salt): <3% salt
"Salé" (salty)> 3% salt (Salt was the historic means of preservation. In Brittany, local salt production since prehistoric time and the lack of salt-tax, the "Gabelle", probably explain why salty butter is the classic. In some cases (seafood platter, radish ...) you can choose a butter with salt crystals.
Organic butter is made from ...organic milk.
"Beurre de baratte" (unofficial name) is better (worked slower).
Butter "facile à tartiner" (easy to spread) means without additives, but its texture (and therefore taste) are changed.
Butter contains by default 82% minimum fat, so less than oil (100%), but more than cream (32 to 40%).
"Allégé" ( a bit light) butter: contains more water, and from light cream, plus any additives (starch...). 60-65% fat
"Léger " (Light) butter: about 40% fat (39% minimum)
“Concentré” (concentrated): 96 to 100% fat. For the professionals. To make puff pastries…
Clarified butter: heat in a bain-marie. (don't used a bad/old butter). You can then remove lactose and proteins (the white liquid that is deposited). The butter can then be cooked without presenting small black spots (burned casein) and will taste better. (Otherwise, the butter will burn from 120 ° C).
For cooking, add a bit of cooking oil to avoid burning a regular butter.
Indian ghee is a clarified butter that is a bit roasted (it takes a nutty taste). The goal is also to be able to toast the spices at the beginning of the preparations (without burning the butter), but also to allow a long conservation without a refrigerator.
Sauces: butter comes into play for many sauces (beurre blanc/white butter, beurre/black butter ...) or to thicken (roux, beurre manié ...). (see their respective definitions).
Origin/location of butter:
Normandy: generally fatter. Its creaminess makes it perfect for creams, brioches ...
Charentes and Est: a little drier, more suitable for puff pastries.
Presentation / Table service:
A plate of butter may be slightly embellished with streaks made with a knife with small teeth (e.g. bread knife). Formerly many farms printed their mark on the butter with a seal (often a carved spoon).
Remove the butter from the refrigerator a little beforehand, to serve it at near ambient temperature.
Work 90 g of butter into a creamy consistency.
Whisk 75 g of sugar with 4 extra-fresh egg yolks until completely white.
Gradually add the butter while continuing to Whisk.
Add the desired flavor (espresso coffee, melted chocolate, vanilla beans, drops of rum...).
Put in the fridge 1 hour.
Sweet wine, or liquor, or sweet drink
Pratiquer tout le long ou autour du fruit ou du légume des petites cannelures à l'aide d'un couteau à canneler
Pour the liquid into an intermediate container (carafe) large enough for maximum airing.
Therefore the carafe is filled in only at its maximum width and can be swirled a little.
The wine can thus gain in aromas (young wine), or on the contrary can be damaged (old wines) based on its nature.
Not to be confused with "decanting" which aims at removing sediment. Confusion comes from the USA where carafes are often named 'decanters".
1784-1833. Marie-Antoine Carême aka "Antonin Carême".
Famous cook of famous men (he was nicknamed "King of Chefs" or "Chief of Kings") such as Talleyrand, King George IV, Emperor Francis I of Austria...
Originally a pastry chef, he is credited:
-for making sauces lighter and more subtle,
-to have invented dishes with shapes inspired by architecture (Palladio's villas...),
-to have created the chef's hat (by putting a cardboard box into the nightcap to dress it, to contribute to the ennoblement of the profession),
-to be at the origin of the introduction of the Russian-style service... (even if it could be the fact of Grimod de La Reynière).
-grown in the ground (not hydroponic)
On large carrots, remove the "wood"
(After having peeled and rinsed them, cut them in 2, then in 4 in the length, and cut away the heart which is harder).
Cave idéale (vin)
"The cellar makes the wine".
Criteria of a good cellar :
Darkness (especially no ultraviolet light, neon light...)
Humidity around 70 % ; The clay floor often helps. A "too" humid cellar will only damage the labels.
Slight ventilation (a window in the north, or a second one with another orientation)
Cold, and especially without rapid rise in temperature
No smell (paint, gasoline...)
No vibration (subway...). In the worst case, install a sand bed to absorb the vibrations.
In France, "caviar" is only roe of sturgeon fishes (in other countries it could come from other fishes). The 3 main varieties of caviar are roe from different sturgeon breeds:
-Béluga: the rarest (20% of catches), the largest (30 eggs per gram), with a gray color, and the most expensive.
-Oscetra: 30% of catch, characteristic flavor slightly iodized, 50 eggs per gram. Gray color with golden reflections.
-Sevruga: 50% of the catches. Small gray grains (70 eggs per gram), almost black.
After many years of farming, the sturgeon is fished, roe is removed and sorted grain by grain. It is then salted and aged for a few months.
Some add a preservative: Borax, toxic in large quantity.
A good caviar should be shiny and smell iodine (not fish!).
In the past, caviar was a simple and "light" dish. He was even potentially eaten ... during Lent!
A gastronomic custom of country origin perpetuating itself for its conviviality and the complicity it favors. Pour, in the bottom of your soup (or sauce of the dish), a dash of wine accompanying it. Dates to the time when wine was considered as part of food. This mixture nicely rinses the plate and the taste buds. Not for children, or pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Champagne soup (cocktail)
-1 bottle of Crémant (cold)
-1 tablespoon of red grenadine
-1 slice of pineapple (fresh or canned) cut into pieces
-2 tbsp. Cointreau
-1 tbsp. banana cream (optional)
In a punch bowl, pour: Cointreau, grenadine and banana cream.
Add the pineapple pieces.
Pour in the cold cremant, slowly, so it doesn't foam too much.
- a ladle
- flutes or cups
- small spoons
Can be enjoyed as an aperitif, or with dessert.
Cool the cream in a salad bowl in the freezer for 30 minutes,
then whisk it with the vanilla sugar and put the bowl in another bowl, larger, containing ice cubes. Or, put 1 or 2 ice cubes directly in the cream.
You can replace the sugar with icing sugar.
If it's very hot, the recipe is more technical.
You can then use a little specific powder to fix the Chantilly.
The story is that the cream was invented by the chef Valet, at the Château de Chantilly. But the pastry-cooks of Catherine de Medici were already whipping their cream with stalks of broom.
Enrichment of grape juice with sugar, before alcoholic fermentation.
This technique can be practiced if the grapes have not received enough sunlight and do not contain enough natural sugar.
If practiced in excessive quantities, chaptalization can lead to quality problems, so there is a ceiling on chaptalization depending on the European wine-growing regions.
742-814. Empereur d'une partie de l'Europe occidentale.
Châtaigne ou marron?
Ce sont les fruits du même arbre, sauvage ou planté par l'homme.
La première se mange et contient plusieurs amandes par fruit.
Le second ne se mange pas et ne contient qu'une amande.
Mais c'est une variété différente des marrons communs (Aesculus hippocastanum), les "marrons d'Inde", qui, elle, est légérement toxique.
Chef w. guests
Try not to abandon guests for more than ten minutes- with a couple of quick trips back into the kitchen (Unless you're all dining in the kitchen).
A "chicken" is a male or a female of at least 40 days
(81 days minimum for a "Label Rouge" chicken, an organic chicken in Europe, or "fermier" - farm born - one,
and 108 days for a "Bresse chicken").
The old varieties (faveroles, barbezieux ...) with a slow growth, are more tasty.
The battery chicken, which did not exercise, does not contain muscle, but plenty of water (at best).
It seems less expensive in appearance, but feeds much less than a quality chicken ! It is only a young obese.
If possible buy the chicken with its feet - if they are super clean, is it really coming from a farm ?
-The capon is a castrated male chicken (224 days minimum for a capon of Bresse). Its very tender flesh should cook gently (not too strong fire).
-The Hen is bigger than a chicken. Its flesh is fatter but preferably requires poached cooking.
-The Poulard is a female (140 days minimum for a chicken Bresse).
Before cooking, remove the maximum amount of fat from the inside by hand.
Remove the Wish bone (the cut later will be easier).
Season (salt/pepper) outside but also inside.
Avoid overcooking (the meat will dry).
In France a policeman is sometimes called a "chicken",
because on the Quai des Orfèvres in Paris (where the Paris Police headquarter is) was once ... an important poultry market.
Chinois étamine (cuisine)
Passoire très fine
(pluriel : choux-fleurs)
De la famille des choux, le chou-fleur est la phase très précoce de la fleur.
C'est une plante qui mute facilement et il existe beaucoup de variétés avec des couleurs distinctes. La version très blanche a donné son nom à la crème "du Barry", Comtesse à la peau laiteuse légendaire.
En jouant avec les différentes variétés, le chou-fleur est disponible toute l'année.
Quand cultivé en agriculture conventionnelle (avec des apports soufrés), il est encore plus odorant à la cuisson. (Choisir du bio réduit cette odeur puissante).
Cuit longuement, le chou-fleur peut provoquer quelques flatulences.
Maladie du foie provenant d'une agression souvent due à des excès répétés d'alcool.
Mais la malbouffe (excès de sucres…) peut également être une agression du foie.
Tous les êtres humains n'ont pas un foie égal :
-contrairement à une idée reçue, les gros ne sont pas forcément capables d'ingérer plus d'alcool.
-les femmes avant ménopause sont plus sensibles à l'alcool, mais un peu moins à la malbouffe que les hommes.
Couper en petits cubes.
Ne pas confondre avec émincer.
Claret, clairet (vin)
Vin rouge clair (d'où son nom).
Le claret est souvent un vin de Bordeaux, apprécié des Anglais, tandis que le clairet est un rosé de Bordeaux.
Mais "Claret" peut être aussi un rouge clair de Bourgogne, comme l'était le Puligny-Montrachet, avant l'arrivée du cépage Chardonnay !
Vieux mot bourguignon (utilisé au moins depuis 1584).
C'est une parcelle de vigne, précisément délimitée. Elle porte un nom, et produit un vin particulier.
Une aire d'appellation peut englober un ou plusieurs climats.
Il y en a 1247 cadastrés en Bourgogne.
Reproduction à l'identique (même matériel génétique) d'un type de vigne.
Par exemple, il existe plusieurs clones commercialisés du cépage chardonnay : 75, 76, 116...
Un clone n'est pas un organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM).
La vigne dispose d'organes mâles (étamines des fleurs) et d'organes femelles (pistils) et peut donc se reproduire seule, ou bien avec une vigne voisine. La vigne enfant, issue du pépin de raisin de la vigne fécondée, risque d'avoir un profil génétique légèrement différent de son/ses parents, car les plants mutent naturellement. Elle n'est donc pas un clone de son/ses parent(s).
La sélection massale est celle que le vigneron effectuait autrefois, en sélection les meilleurs plants et en les faisant se reproduire naturellement. Elle assure une diversité de plants sur une même parcelle (avec des avantages et des inconvénients).
Elle est généralement opposée à la sélection clonale de plus en plus proposée par les pépiniéristes et imposée par les états : clones identiques utilisés sur une même parcelle.
In a dish it slows the bacterial progression. (Hence its frequent use in dishes that are often tasted in several times, like a stew...).
You can infuse it by pricking it in a peeled onion that is cooked in the broth.
Be careful, a clove stuck in your teeth destroys the taste of the wine!
In a high-rimed bowl, put the egg yolk (less than 9 days old), 1 tsp. Dijon mustard (you can do without) and 1 hint of salt.
Beat with a mixer.
Slowly incorporate, while continuing to mix, the oil.
Continue beating to "tighten" the mayonnaise.
Add a little tomato paste (or ketchup), 2-3 drops of tabasco and finish with ... a dash of cognac (yes, this is a "cocktail" sauce).
French say "le coco", or "la noix de coco" (coconut).
The nut must have water inside, this can be heard by shaking it.
To open it:
Pierce the "eyes" (at least 2 of them) with a corkscrew to get the juice (when the nut is green, it is called "coconut water").
Then blow inside to remove all the liquid.
Split the nut, and then the pulp can easily be removed with a thrifty knife (peeler).
The "cream" of coconut is obtained by pressing fresh pulp,
and "milk" by adding water (usually after the cream was extracted).
Many products on the market include additives, thickeners ... (a little less for organic products). Better to make your own milk (can be done using a blender).
If you buy dried/grated coconut, re-hydrate it first with coconut milk.
2 large varieties exist:
Robusta (power and bitterness, a bit of "rubber")
and arabica (a little more delicate, complexity when grown at some altitude).
Roasting depends on tastes and cultures (for example warmer and longer in Italy, giving darker and fatter grains).
In general, the longer the roasting, the more coarse the grind should be.
Make sure the coffee is freshly ground (the coffee ground oxidizes quickly); keep it in the refrigerator.
Also make sure you have good quality water (not chlorinated - leave it in the open for at least 1 hour - and not too hard - not too much limestone).
Finally, the "crema" (mousse) must be present on the surface, to preserve the aromas (like a lid).
Vigne où différents cépages sont présents sur la même parcelle.
L'idée de ne planter qu'un seul cépage par parcelle n'est apparue que tardivement dans l'histoire de la viticulture, bien souvent après le phylloxera (qui fût l'occasion de replanter beaucoup de vignes).
Caractères aromatiques et gustatifs sont nombreux et variés.
Conserver entre -12°C et -18°C.
Le développement microbien est alors ralenti mais pas totalement arrêté. (cf. surgeler).
Constraint / Diet
LIGHT: Excludes dishes that are very fat, very sweet, and that are loaded with flour or starchy foods. Also excludes those that don't look light (but which are not too greasy or sweet ...). i.e.: steak tartare.
CONSENSUS: Dish being generally appreciated by ALL guests. (we keep pork that is excluded only with the constraints "halal" or "kosher"). Choose for fragile or sick people (strong flavors shall be avoided ...).
VEGGIE: Excludes meat and fish & shellfish, oysters, snails, caviar (animal is usually killed) … Does not exclude dairy products, eggs (if the animal is not killed) …
LOCAVORE (France): Products coming from France (Metropolitan France & Corsica). Do not hesitate to check the origin on the packaging that this is the case. But tolerance for small amounts nonperishable (spices, vanilla, spoon of rum - not the full bottle, chocolate chip - but not the tablet, coffee extract ...) (low carbon footprint).
PREGNANT: Removes recipes containing foods banned from pregnant women for the fetus.
BREAST FEEDING: Removes recipes containing forbidden foods for breastfeeding women, for the future of their child.
EASY TO CHEW: Use when a guest has… teeth problems!
FRENCH CLASSIC: Traditional regional or national cuisine
“SO FRENCH!”: Mostly appreciated by the French and may contain unusual food for other nations (snails, frogs, tripe ...). May not be suitable for frail or sick people (strong flavors...). Food requiring the prior approval of your guests.
KOSHER: Follows the kashrut of the Consistory of Paris.
HALAL: Follows the specifications of the Mosque of Paris.
Conventionnel (Vin, agriculture)
C'est l'agriculture et la fabrication du vin majoritairement pratiquées.
Elle peut utiliser fongicides, pesticides, herbicides, souffre (160 mg/l pour les rouges, 210 mg/l pour les blancs) , et beaucoup d'autres produits au chai.
On l'oppose en générale à la viticulture biologique, biodynamique, ou aux vins nature.
Si l'agriculteur/vigneron se veut au moins un peu respectueux de l'environnement, il est alors en agriculture conventionnelle "raisonnée".
Corder une purée
Mixer une purée de féculents contenant de l'amidon (pommes de terre…) pour qu'elle devienne visqueuse. (Texture pouvant faire des "cordes").
There are many models.
You need 1 long, thin screw with wide winding.
Ideally, the screw is chamfered, but it is not beveled to avoid bursting the cork, and the capsule cutter must not have teeth so as not to damage it.
Côte de Beaune
Burgundy vineyard located on a strip of about 30 km around the city of Beaune.
(Between the Côte de Nuits to the north, and the Côte Chalonnaise to the south).
Produces in particular some very great white wines.
Côte de Nuits
Northern part of Burgundy, between Dijon and Beaune (20 km).
Halfway is the village of Nuits-St-Georges, which gives it its name.
Here are many of the Burgundy Grands Crus, especially red ones.
Côte des Bars
Côte des blancs
Coupé / couper (vin)
Diluer, généralement avec de l'eau
Freshwater crustacean, usually a sign of unpolluted water.
The crayfish "pattes blanches" (white paws), light in color, come from mountain streams. They are small and tasty.
The "pattes rouges" (red legs) have dark brown carapace.
The good manners tolerate to eat them with the fingers, when they are whole.
Cut the spinal cord is by planting first a sharp knife in the back of the head, (beware not to be pinched !),
remove the central gut by breaking the tip of the tail (center fin) very gently, then twist and pull gently.
Don’t confuse crayfish (fresh water) with crawfish (salted water and also called spiny lobster).
Vin mousseux ayant une appellation d'origine.
En France, un crémant doit vieillir au moins 9 mois en bouteille, au contact des lies.
The cow's milk is separated from its cream by centrifugation.
"Crème entière" (Whole cream): from 30 to 42% fat (at 30%, count about 10 g for 1 cl)
Cream AOP - PDO (such as Isigny): 35% minimum
"Crème double" (Double cream): 40% minimum
"Crème allégée" (Lightened cream): between 12 to 30%
But whatever it is, the cream is therefore much less fat than butter (82% minimum), or oil (100%).
"Crème fleurette": liquid naturally (it is on top of the milk) and can be whipped.
"Crème épaisse" (thick): it became thick after lactic ferments were added. Only texture and tangy taste change, not the composition.
For each recipe we suggest one or the other, but they are practically interchangeable (with the exception of whipped cream / Chantilly).
Heat treatment :
"Crue" (Raw) cream (quite rare): none. It is the best. Keep it cold for a maximum of one week.
"Fraîche" (Fresh) cream: obligatorily pasteurized (72 ° C)
Longue conservation (Long-lasting) cream: UHT treatment
"Biologique" (organic) cream comes from cows raised according to EU organic criteria.
Sour cream is a fermented cream from Eastern Europe and Anglo-Saxon countries, whose French cuisine has sometimes copied by mixing crème fraîche and vinegar.
Boil 75 cl of whole milk, stirring and watching.
In the meantime:
Put 150 g of sugar in 1 cul-de-poule.
Separate the whites from the yolks of 5 eggs, putting the yolks with the sugar.
Whisk the yolks and sugar until they turn white.
Add 75 g of flour all at once and mix well.
Slowly add - while stirring - the boiling milk.
Return to the boil, stirring constantly to bring to the boil for about 3 minutes (still stirring constantly).
After cooking, put the cream in a cul-de-poule.
To prevent it from drying out, when it is still hot pass a piece of butter on the surface (a light layer of butter insulates).
It can then be kept in the refrigerator.
We distinguish 2 varieties:
-The white one (Agaricus bisporus), because cultivated without any light at all
-and the brown one (Agaricus brunnescens), cultivated with a little light, more tasty, and which in growing becomes the "Portobello".
"Champignon (mushroom) de PAris" is not usurped, because it is under King Louis XIV that its culture was developed, in the quarries of the French capital where abounded the dung of the horses which worked there.
However, the name is not protected. They are sometimes also called "crimini".
Choose firm and unstained mushrooms, and of undoubted origin (mushrooms can store harmful substances, radioactive...).
Cut and remove the base of the earthy stem.
Rinse the mushrooms quickly in cold water - head up-, then put them water with a bit of lemon juice (to prevent them from turning black).
If you want to remove the skin, do so with a small knife, peeling from the outside in. This is usually done for large ones, especially if they are no longer extra fresh.
Reserve the stems for long cooking.
Store the mushrooms in the refrigerator without cling film (so they don't wilt), but covered with a damp cloth or paper towel.
These mushrooms can be eaten raw, or cooked (well seared to dry them out, and not boiled).
Crisper drawer (fridge)
As a hygienic measure, all hot dishes not immediately served, must be kept in cold storage as quickly as possible. (ideally within 2 hours).
Of course, we can not put a dish still hot directly into the fridge, so it is necessary to cool it before:
-Remove from the heat (oven, pan ...),
-Separate the elements (for example remove the pieces of meat from their sauce),
-Put it in a cool ventilated place (by a cold window ...),
-Slide an object under the container so that the air circulates,
-Put it in a water bath (water + ice)
In cold locations, in winter, the crisper drawer can be replaced by an outdoor pantry.
Cru bourgeois (vin)
Ranking of Bordeaux wines existing since 1932 and reviewed many times thereafter.
It is a wine that belongs to a merchant / négociant (a bourgeois), as opposed to a peasant wine. Should we deduce that the bourgeois, wealthy person, can a priori afford a quality wine?
This designation has existed since the 18th century (and therefore predates the famous 1855 classification of the Médoc).
Crunchy parmesan tiles
Note: 12 month old Parmesan cheese is sufficient.
Take a baking tray out of the oven and roll out a sheet of parchment paper.
Using a peeler, grate some Parmesan cheese.
Arrange it in shapes (rectangles, triangles...) on the sheet.
You can also use small wooden picks to make lollipops instead of tiles.
Under the broiler, put the tray in the oven and watch.
In a few minutes the parmesan melts.
When it begins to take on a little color, remove the tray.
When it has cooled, remove the tiles.
Cul-sec (as shots)
"Cul-sec" literally means "Dry bottom". So to drink cul-sec refers to drinking as shots (all at once).
Maurice Edmond Sailland, 1872-1956, dit "Curnonsky" fut un gastronome et critique culinaire français. On le surnomme "Prince des gastronomes".
Il proclame mythiques cinq vins blancs français. Ce sont : montrachet, savennières-coulée-de-serrant (sec), Château-d’Yquem, château-grillet et château-chalon.
On this day, is your wine:
- at its peak, or
- to be drunk soon (because old).
It is of course an order of magnitude which varies according to the vintages, the winemakers, etc.
Date de Consommation Recommandée
D.D.M. / D.L.U.O.
La Date de Durabilité Minimale remplace l'ancienne D.L.U.O. (car certains jetaient alors le produit).
Date Limite d'Utilisation Optimale d'un produit, tant qu'il reste emballé et stocké comme indiqué sur son emballage.
Passé ce jour, la produit est toujours comestible, mais moins bon.
Date Limite de Consommation d'un produit, tant qu'il reste emballé et stocker comme indiqué sur son emballage.
Date Limite de Vente.
Tranche d'un gros poisson.
Un darne au niveau de la queue n'a pas de trou central correspondant au ventre du poisson.
De caractère (vin)
Traits particuliers et bien marqués
Transvaser un liquide en ayant soin de ne pas entraîner le dépôt qu'il a formé. (Ne pas confondre avec carafer).
La forme de certaines bouteilles de vin avec des "épaules" (celle de Bordeaux par exemple), permet de servir dans des verres sans le dépôt, et en se passant de décanteur.
Deglaze (meat, fish)
Remove from the dish, pan…the meat or fish.
Then heat the cooking juices.
Eliminate as much fat as possible (using a spoon).
Deglaze with the wine or cider, and add this preparation to your sauce, or keep it for another dish.
Note: some wine leftover, even with a small defect, may be suitable.
Pour un vin tranquille (sans bulles), de 4 à 12 g/l de sucre résiduel.
Pour un vin effervescent (champagne), de 32 à 50 g/l de sucre. (Cf. dosage)
Concentration et richesse se traduisent visuellement (couleur intense), olfactivement (arômes concentrés) et gustativement (consistance, volume).
Serving a sweet dish at the end of a meal is a habit that came in France from Italy,
probably imported with the coming of Queen Catherine de Medici.
Does cooking require:
- a specific knowledge,
- or special skills?
Rated on 3 levels.
Probably invented by Arnaud de Villeneuve (Arnau de Vilanova) 1238 - 1311 and his pupil, Raymond de Lulle, at the faculty of Montpellier.
The brandy ("eau de vie in French") was then especially popularized by the Dutch merchant sailors. They wanted to prevent the wine they carried to avoid turning into vinegar. That's why they "burned" (distilled) it beforehand. They also distilled it at home to preserve it. "Brandy", comes from "brandwijn" (burnt wine).
We sometimes distinguish
-the "fine" that comes from the distillation of wine,
-the "marc" which comes from the distillate of the solid parts (seeds, skins ...) once the grape juice has been removed.
You can also make brandy from other fruit wines (pear, cherry ...).
1639-1715. Perfect contemporary of King Louis XIV (birth & death).
Pierre Pérignon was a Benedictine monk ("Dom" is the honorific prefix coming from "Dominus", the master), and cellar master of the abbey of Hautvillers, near Epernay for 47 years.
He is not the inventor of Champagne, but :
-He helped to perfect the technique of blending pinot noir from various vines.
-He speeded up the press (so that the wine would not color), and
-improved the aging of the wines.
Sea fish. They are many types of Sparus fish ("Dorade"). But only the best one, with a gold bar mar between its eyes, the Gilt-head (Sparus aurata) can be spelled "Daurade" in France.
Juste avant le bouchage définitif de la bouteille, on ajoute au vin effervescent une liqueur de dosage (aussi appelée d'expédition) contenant du sucre (le plus souvent de canne). La quantité de sucre ajoutée dépend du style du vin souhaité.
Le qualificatif sur l'étiquette varie selon la quantité de sucre (sucre naturel déjà présent + sucre ajouté) :
> 50 g/l : doux (très rare)
entre 32 et 50 g/l : demi-sec (rare)
< 12 g/l : brut (majorité)
< 6 g/l : extra brut
< 3 g/l et sans sucre ajouté : zéro dosage ou bien brut nature (rare)
Dosage zéro (vin)
Vin effervescent (champagne, …) sans adjonction de sucre et contenant moins de 3 g/l de sucre. (cf. dosage). Synonyme: brut nature.
Doux (vin, cidre)
Qui présente une saveur sucrée.
En général, en fonction du sucre, on parle pour un vin de :
4 - 12 g/l doux
12 - 45 g/l moelleux
> 45 g/l liquoreux
Mais pour un cidre, doux signifie > 48 g/l de sucre.
De même les vins effervescents ont leur propre classification. En effet le gaz (dans du vin ou du cidre) a tendance à acidifier le vin. Il faut plus de sucre pour arriver à une saveur sucrée équivalente.
Drain off (cooking)
Soak meat , offals or vegetables in cold water to remove any blood or bitterness.
Présenter le mieux possible les plats pour les rendre appétissants.
Concatenation in English of "Diner" and "Lunch".
It is a late brunch, taken around 5 pm.
Sometimes practiced in New-York.
During the colonial period, the good Quebec society spoke of "Repas à l'ambigu" (meals with ambiguity).
The English call it "high tea".
Not to be confused with a "médianoche", a very late dinner that was practiced at the court of Louis XIV.
Enlever au ciseau les nageoires d'un poisson
Trépied, généralement de châtaignier, permettant de conduire la vigne en stabilisant la souche (contre le vent, l'érosion).
Check that there is no cracked egg. Avoid dirty eggs unless you are certain of where they come from.
In Europe, the code on the shell corresponds to the breeding: 0: organic, 1: outdoor, 2: ground, 3: caged or battery (avoid), then comes the country code, breeding and building codes (for traceability).
In the USA, truly significant labels are Certified organic, Pasture-raised and Free-range.
Sizes: from small <53 g ... to very large> 73 g (65 g average, includes 60% white). Generally, the older the hen, the bigger the eggs.
The date of lay is only required for fresh or extra fresh eggs (less than 9 days), but as the recommended use date (DCR) is 28 days after laying, you can calculate that you must be at least 19 days away from the DCR. In the USA, the “Best by” date comes with the date in the year (001 to 365) when eggs were packed (then you have 4 to 5 weeks to eat them).
The color of the shell depends on the hen breed, the yolk of the hen's diet (and therefore potentially the season).
Commercial chicken eggs are checked (no salmonella, etc.). This is not necessarily the case for other eggs.
Do not wash a dirty egg (water increases the permeability of the shell by removing the protective cuticle). An egg can be stored at room temperature, but as soon as it is stored in the refrigerator, the moisture in it wipes the cuticle and the egg must remain in the refrigerator. In Europe eggs are usually sold at room temperature and can be kept at home. But since they are sold in a fridge in the USA, keep them in a fridge at home.
Refrigerated storage in the coldest compartment, point down so that the air chamber in the egg is not squeezed, in its original packaging, and not next to foods with a strong odor.
No longer than 28 days. The more time passes, the less fresh the egg is and the more the air chamber grows (hence, an egg put in 10% cold salted water no longer flows but floats). Similarly, once broken, the yolk of an old egg sags while its white spreads.
If you have a surplus of egg white, do not hesitate to freeze it in small quantities (well annotated), but do not keep it for a long time in the refrigerator (risk of salmonella).
Discard any cracked egg (risk of contamination). Use quickly after removing from the refrigerator (the change in temperature creates condensation that favors germs). Break the egg in a clean way to avoid contact with the outside of the shell as much as possible. Never touch white or yolk with your hands. Wash your hands just after touching the shell.
For preparations without or with little cooking (mayonnaise, beaten whites, soft boiled ...), use chicken eggs, and only extra fresh ones (less than 9 days after laying).
Rule of 3-6-9 (min) usually gives the cooking time of soft, medium, and hard-boiled eggs when introduced into boiling salted water. But be careful, to prevent them from continuing to cook, so immerse them in the icy water afterwards. To avoid cracking during cooking, bring them first to room temperature, gently place them in the pan, and keep a low boil.
To easily peel a hard egg, first soak it in cold water for a few minutes.
Élevage des vins ou eaux-de-vie
Faire vieillir dans des tonneaux de bois (généralement de chêne) avant la mise en bouteille.
Le contenant permet au vin ou à l'eau de vie de s'oxygéner lentement, et si le tonneau est relativement neuf, de transférer quelques arômes boisés (vanille, noix de coco, pain grillé…) dus à la façon dont le tonneau est séché avec un feu quand il est fabriqué, et à la nature du bois.
En effet, différents types bois sont utilisés chêne français (Quercus Petraea : sessile ou rouvre, Quercus robur : pédonculé). L'origine de l'arbre (Tronçais : grain fin, Limousin : gros grain...) joue aussi un rôle.
Le bois apporte également quelques tannins.
Pour les eaux de vie (transparentes à l'origine), l'élevage donne également une couleur brune.
L'invention du tonneau serait gauloise et datant du Ier siècle avant notre ère. Les tonneaux étaient déjà utilisés pour transporter et conserver la cervoise.
Couper en tranches fines.
Ne pas confondre avec ciseler.
Enlever la peau de certains légumes (tomates …) ou fruits (pêches, prunes, amandes, pistaches…).
Pour le faciliter, plongez quelques secondes dans l'eau bouillante, rafraichissez-les ensuite dans une eau glacée (pour stopper la cuisson), puis pelez-les.
Synonyme de "monder"
Famille d'odeurs provenant de la combustion (feu de bois, silex…).
L'Homme est particulièrement sensible à cette famille d'odeurs ; on est par exemple capable de sentir une allumette craquée à plusieurs mètres !
Qui évoque le parfum et/ou le goût d'une ou plusieurs épices (poivre, muscade, cannelle…).
Dans la Rome antique, on mélangeait son vin avec des épices, du miel… Les Gaulois furent probablement les premiers à boire leur vin pur et étaient pour cela considérés comme des "barbares".
Aujourd'hui, à part pour le vin chaud, on n'épice plus son vin.
The escargot ("hélix", round shell, turning clockwise) should not be confused with the concurrent "achatine" (sharp shell, with separate rings).
In France, you can usually find Burgundy escargot (Pomatia Linné), the “petit gris” (little gray, aka Aspersa Müller) or the Turk one (Lucorum). You can also sometimes find the one from the Balkans or from Turkey: Helix pomatia.
Monks were able to classify the escargot into light meat … so that they could be eaten during lent fast!
Famous Chef 1846-1935, and partner of Caesar Ritz.
He brought cooking into the modern era.
To his credit :
- the fixed-price menu (which avoids unpleasant surprises at the time of the bill)
- as well as the rational and peaceful organization of the kitchen team (the "brigade"). A kind of Taylorism of the stoves!
Caractère aromatique et gustatif sont assez intenses et perceptibles
Vin effervescent (champagne…) contenant moins de 6 g/l de sucre. (cf. dosage)
Arrivé à maturité.
Oil, butter, or animal fat?
Old subject of regional controversies. Typically in France, we use / used:
- butter in Brittany,
- duck / goose fat in the Southwest,
- cream in Normandy,
- olive oil in the South,
- pork fat (formerly horse) in the north.
For our recipes, we generally suggest an oil-butter mix (and olive oil only for Mediterranean dishes), in order to combine the flavor of butter and the cooking power of the oil.
However, if there is a risk of cholesterol, prefer oil only.
Similarly, for cooking meats, if you want to eat kosher, you need use oil. (See our sections cream, butter and oil).
Fermier (for a cheese)
Means that the cheese is made at the dairy farm (all production steps).
So, the milk comes from a single herd and was not transported.
Some “fermiers” cheese have a green sticker/pellet. (“Laitier” ones – milk is collected from several dairy farms – might have a red one).
“Fermiers” cheese are usually the best (closest to the terroir – more flavors…) and should be selected, but:
-Some cheese request a lot of milk (so they have, or had, to be “Laitier”)
-Some of the businesses collecting milk make good cheeses.
See fermier (cheese)
Vin de qualité, dont les caractères aromatiques et gustatifs sont subtils, harmonieux et mesurés.
Voir "Distillation" ou voir "Cognac jeune : 3*, V.S., V.S.O.P." ou voir "Cognac vieux : Napoléon, Impérial, Hors d’âge, Vieille Réserve, X.O…."
Prefer a whole fish, prepared in front of you by the fishmonger, to precut pieces.
This way you're able to check the freshness:
- no smell,
- firm flesh,
- shiny and well-hung scales
- red ears,
- bright eyes (not dry).
Prefer a fish caught with a fishing road than with a trawl.
To preserve it, wrap it in a damp cloth and store it on the coldest shelf of the refrigerator (as short as possible).
Raw or marinated fish may contain bacteria. So pregnant women, or people with weakened immune systems ... should not eat them.
Take the central edges of a big fish (monkfish, skate ...), remove well all skin and fins.
Do it ideally before the fish is cooked (but can also be done after).
You can also use shellfish carcasses for a crustaceans stock.
Rinse the edges and chop roughly the larger ones.
Sear them to in a frying pan with a little hot oil.
Add 2 chopped shallots, 2 carrots (peeled / chopped), a bouquet garni rinsed (parsley tails, thyme and 1/2 bay leaf) and a little crushed pepper.
Sweat without browning, then wet with 75 cl of liquid (preferably only dry white wine with good acidity, or rosé or dry sparkling, but possibly mixed with some water). A wine aired a bit too long is suitable.
Boil slowly for 25 min without lid.
Filter the whole through a fine sieve.
Notes: dehydrated stock also does exist.
The stock can also be prepared in advance and frozen in small batches (you can use ice buckets).
Avoid using gills to make a stock (they contain blood).
Do not salt, or only at the end of the making of the stock, and after tasting.
Le "froment" est :
- généralement du blé tendre,
- parfois du blé dur,
- ou bien de l'épeautre (aussi dit "grand épeautre" et à ne pas confondre avec le "petit épeautre").
Pour fabriquer la farine, après on broie d'abord les grains.
L'utilisation d'une meule de pierre permet d'obtenir une mouture plus grossière que celles obtenue avec les cylindres industriels. La farine sera meilleure.
Puis on incinère (brûle) plus ou moins (selon le type souhaité) l'enveloppe des grains (le "son").
Mais on perd ainsi vitamines et minéraux.
Type 150 : grise, hyper complète (destinée à du pain au son).
Type 110 : grise, complète permet de faire des pains complets.
Type 65 : blanche pour pains (USA: "bread", Italie : Tipo 1)
Type 55 : blanche, l'ordinaire pour pains, pâte à tarte... (USA: "all purpose", Italie: Tipo 0)
Type 45 (dite "fleur de farine") : sert pour la pâtisserie fine (USA: "cake/pastry, Italie: Tipo 00)
Les pesticides, herbicides... utilisés pour la culture de la céréale, sont essentiellement présents dans le son ; aussi, plus la farine est complète, et plus il peut être intéressant d'utiliser une farine bio.
Note: pour les pizzas, les Italiens ont 1 farine particulière (Tipo 0 ou Tipo 00), moyennement raffinée (donc vitamines et minéraux présents et couleur un peu brune), mais moulue très fine.
Toutes les farines ne sont pas panifiables, il leur faut du gluten pour lever.
Celles de châtaigne, de maïs, de blé noir (aussi nommée "sarrasin" car les grains sont noirs), de riz, de coco... n'en contiennent pas du tout.
Plus une pâte est pétrie, plus elle est ensemencée en levure, et plus l'index glycémique est élevé. Le pain "de tradition" est un peu moins pétri.
Tamiser la farine a pour but de l'aérer (elle est très compacte dans son emballage d'origine). Elle se mélangera ensuite mieux, et permettra d'éviter les grumeaux. On peut aussi la transvaser dans un bocal fermé pour la stocker (et agiter le bocal avant chaque utilisation).
La "fécule" est uniquement l'amidon de la farine (sans les germes, ni l'enveloppe), qui permet d'épaissir une sauce, mais est plus "lourde" que la farine (attention, délayez-la si possible d'abord au froid, car elle prend immédiatement dans un liquide chaud). Pour le maïs, une marque industrielle de fécule est la maïzena.
Whether it comes from duck or goose, it is originally a natural process: in these migratory birds, the ingested sugars are massively transformed into fats in the liver, just before the big start, and to constitute energy reserves.
Nowadays birds are usually force-fed with corn.
Practiced in ancient Egypt, the foie gras was transmitted to the Greeks then to the Romans. These force-fed the geese with figs (figatum jecur - liver with figs - "figatum" having then given its origin to the word "foie” (liver in French).
The foie gras was probably introduced in Europe via the Ashkenazi community of Central Europe.
The raw liver (often called "frais”- fresh- which often leads to confusion with the liver just cooked see below) is classified into 3 categories: "extra", "1st choice" or "tout venant" (TV).
Its touch must be firm and supple, not grainy. The appearance must be without spot or hematoma.
If you are preparing a terrine, check that the size of the terrine pot is adapted to the whole liver.
If you do not make foie gras yourself (TERRINE), buy the "foie gras entier” - whole foie gras (only 1 liver, or several lobes).
The simple "foie gras" is a preparation of pieces of agglomerated lobes.
The "bloc de foie gras" is an emulsion of foie gras, with 10% maximum water.
The "parfait de foie gras" can contain only 75% of foie gras.
The "medallions", the "galantines", the "pâtés", the "mousses" ... must contain 50% minimum foie gras.
Finally, "foie gras" preparations may contain only 20% of foie gras.
Then, foie gras, if not raw, could be prepared in different ways:
- "frais” - fresh: it was baked between 55 and 58 ° C, stored in the refrigerator and tasted in the week.
- "mi-cuit” - half-cooked or "semi-conserve” -semi-preserved: It has been sterilized around 85 ° C. It can be kept up to 6 months between 2 and 4 ° C.
- in "conserve” -canned: it was sterilized at 110 ° C. Keep it in a cool, dry place and it is best to enjoy it within 4 years.
Foie gras once cooked can also be frozen. Cut it first in slices. This is convenient when you need some foie gras when you prepare some dishes.
The goose liver tends to disappear in favor of the duck liver: its taste is less strong, the animals, larger, require a more difficult manipulation, and the liver is hardly bigger than for the duck…
Épluchez 3 carottes, coupez-les en gros morceaux.
Lavez bien 2 poireaux, et coupez-les en gros sifflets (en gardant un peu de vert).
Lavez quelques feuilles de céleri branche, et coupez-les en morceaux.
Dans un grand faitout, placez le kg de plat de côte de bœuf, jarret et pied de veau, les légumes précédents, la botte d'estragon, 1 c. à café de gros sel et 2 clous de girofle.
Recouvrez d'environ 2 l d'eau, et faite bouillir doucement 3 à 4 heures, en écumant de temps à autre.
Puis, filtrez finement, et faites réduire au moins de moitié.
Fond de veau
Fraiser une pâte (cuisine)
Écraser une pâte avec la paume de la main sur un plan de travail, la pousser, la reprendre, l'écraser devant soi...
Only dishes made from products never frozen can be frozen. (Ice cream or sherbet should not have melted).
A dish should be frozen as fresh as possible. For example, if it was cooked, it must be frozen as soon as it returns to room temperature.
Some cheeses can be frozen, but only when they are not too ripe.
Below -18 °C (0 °F). Under this temperature, the product is really "frozen", fears nothing from a health point of view, and can be kept without time limit. However, it dries out gradually, so we suggest a maximum duration.
Between -12 °C (10 °F) and -18 °C (0 °F), the product is not totally "frozen". It is not the temperature that we recommend (insufficient).
Finally, the freezer compartment of a refrigerator just freezes the products (also insufficient).
As a hygienic measure, all hot a dishes not immediately served must be stored cold as quickly as possible. (the dish should ideally cool down to -18 ° C (0 °F) in 4h30 maximum).
Of course, we can't put a dish still hot directly into the freezer, so it is necessary to cool it first:
-Remove it from the heat (oven ...),
-Separate the elements (for example remove pieces of meat from their sauce),
-Put them to cool in a ventilated place (by the window ...),
-Put the container on something so that the fresh air circulates below it,
-Soak the container in a water bath (water + ice),
If possible, divide your food in small portions before freezing it. This way you will defrost only what you need.
If necessary, freeze also with your food a small cardboard cut to support it (for example in the case of a slice of pie).
Put in an airtight package and label and date it.
To preserve textures, slowly warm up before re-use.
If it is not liquid, put the mixture to defrost on a rack (so that it drips).
If you have enough time, defrost first in the refrigerator.
Avoid defrosting with hot water (the flavors go with the water!).
Use the microwave only for dishes containing a lot of water (sauces, soups ...)
Bring the mixture gently to "almost" room temperature (still a little frozen).
For liquid or water-rich preparations (sauces ...), let come to room temperature or warm slowly over low heat in a pan.
For fried dough, put in 2nd frying bath at 180 ° C (360 °F)
For fries already cooked, and dough-based preparations (pies ...) reheat in an oven at 200 ° C (390 °F)
The dish must then be eaten quickly.
Choose soft starchy potatoes (for example: bintje).
Peel them, putting them as you go in cold water, and cut them out. (Either with a "vite-frite" - classic cutter from North of France, or with a sharp knife without teeth.
-The "Pont-neuf" (we sold French fries in stalls on the Parisian bridge) to 1 cm section,
- "the match apple" about 0.5 cm.
Below, we must abandon the possible manual fillet cutter, and switch to the mandolin.
-The "straw apple" has a section of 0.25 cm,
-and the "golden hair" even less.
Try to have fries as regular as possible, and use the small pieces (ornaments) for purees, soups ...
Rinse the fries under running water.
Dry them well: in 2 successive tea towels, then with paper towels, without breaking them.
In a large volume of cooking oil (sunflower or peanut) at 170 ° C (in the north of France, we used lard, "white beef" or horse fat), put to "poach" "for 7 min for" matched apples "(more or less for larger or smaller sizes) and without stirring.
Do it in small amounts so that the oil temperature does not drop too much. The temperature must remain stable.
Out, the fries should be cooked without being browned.
Then drain them, and let them cool for 20 min.
Then re-fry at 180 ° C minimum for about 5 minutes, stirring a little halfway through cooking. (The cooking time varies according to the starch content. At the end of cooking, the crisp fries makes a metallic resonance when it is blown into the basket).
Drain, dab with paper towels, salt, mix and enjoy hot.
-If your fryer tends to splash around, wrapping it with newspaper will save you time cleaning.
-If you buy your fries in a chip shop, do not make them salt so they do not soften too much (do it once at home).
-The Belgian or French origin is still debate. "French fries" could come from "to French" which means to debit.
Wine with fresh aromas (often linked to the acidity). Acidity make salivate and will make us hungry.
As a measure of hygiene, all hot dishes not immediately served, should be placed in cold storage as quickly as possible (ideally within 2 hours).
Of course, we can not put a dish still hot in the fridge, so it is must cool down first:
-Remove the dish from the heat (oven, pan ...),
-Separate the elements (for example remove the pieces of meat from their sauce),
-Put it in a cool ventilated place (by the window ...),
-Slide an object under the container so that the air circulates,
-Put in a water bath (water + ice),
The number of days of conservation indicated follows European standards.
In closed containers (lid or wrap) to avoid getting/giving scents.
Must be between 3 °C (37 °F) and 8 ° C (45 °F).
En général propre à un vin blanc ; qualité de fraîcheur et de vivacité propre à la jeunesse.
For the FRO (sen) ROSE:
Pour 1 bottle of rosé wine into a slightly larger container, close, and put in the freezer for 6 hours.
(some leftover, even with a slight defect, may be suitable).
Prepare 100 g strawberries and crush them into pieces.
Make a syrup by heating 100 g of sugar and 100 ml of water. (If your rosé was sweet, put only 50 g of sugar). You can also replace the sugar with honey.
Add the crushed strawberries and let infuse for 30 minutes.
Then filter to remove the strawberries and refrigerate for 30 minutes.
In a blender, put:
-the strawberry syrup,
-the frozen rosé,
-1/2 lemon juice
-250 g of ice cubes
Mix and put back in the freezer until you get a texture like a milkshake.
Mix again, and serve, if possible, in champagne coupes.
Put the glasses in the freezer for half an hour.
Take them out just before serving.
This will keep a cold drink longer.
It is possible to make a coulis with any fruits individually, or to associate them; It is also a way of using frozen fruits.
1/2 bottle of sweet cider (or sweet wine, or sweet rosé)
2 tablespoons honey or granulated sugar
The juice of a lemon
500 gr of fresh fruit
In a saucepan, boil the cider (or wine) and honey for 2 minutes to obtain a syrup.
Let this syrup cool.
Rinse, and peel if necessary, the fruits and remove the stones and seeds.
Add the lemon juice and mix everything in the blender.
Refine the consistency of the coulis by adding the cold syrup.
Wrap and store in the fridge.
This preparation is not cooked; it must be eaten quickly.
Fruit in syrup
Apples, pears, white figs, apricots, mirabelles, peaches, mangoes, grapes ...: 500 g
Juice of a lemon
Honey (or granulated sugar): 100 g
Cider (brut or sweet), or sweet white wine, or sweet rosé: 75 cl (If you're using so wine leftover you can complete with some water or reduce proportions of the other ingredients).
Rinse, peel if necessary and chop the fruit into regular pieces.
Put them in a salad bowl
Add the lemon juice and mix gently.
In a saucepan, boil the cider (or wine) and honey.
Pour this boiling liquid over the fruit, and close the salad bowl with a lid or a wrap.
Let infuse until cold.
It is possible to add either vanilla (before boiling) or mint leaves (just after boiling) or…
Qui exhale des arômes (olfaction & retro-olfaction) rappelant ceux du raisin, ou d'autres fruits frais.
Empty barrel of 225 liters (this will make precisely 300 bottles of 75 cl). When the barrel is full, the proper name is a "piece".
(The rooster is the unofficial national symbol of France as a nation).
Dish mostly appreciated by the French and may contain unusual food for other nations (snails, frogs, tripe...).
May not be suitable for frail or sick people (strong flavors...).
Food requiring the prior approval of your guests.
Game and ripening
Do not confuse "faisandage" (also sometimes called "mortifiage") - which is a technic to age/ripe some game before eating - and "putrefied".
The doctor of Pomiane explained: "If the animal was killed by one or two pellets, without being torn apart, its corpse will be invaded by microbes coming from its gut, devoid of toxicity. They transform, partially different muscles by communicating the scent of the faisandage.
If on the other hand the animal has been decayed by the shotgun, its exposed muscles are infected by microbes of putrefaction coming from the hunter's bag, dirty hands that will handle it... These microbes, they are very toxic, break down the muscles, alter the game and make it dangerous".
Some game such as grouse should not be faisandé.
Garlic should be stored in a dry and ventilated place (for example in the crisper drawer of the refrigerator to slow down its drying).
Either we keep the pods in their skin, unpeeled garlic ("ail en chemise" - garlic in shirt), or we peel them. (The skin gets away naturally when you shake the pods for a few moments in a closed box).
A peeled pod can be blanched for a few minutes in water or milk to soften a little.
You can also remove the central germ.
Garlic is more often crushed than chopped. Once chopped, a drop of oil prevents oxidation.
There are several types of garlic with protected geographical indications.
A cream of garlic can be made with milk.
You can taste garlic heads cut in 2 horizontally: Put them in boiling water for 2 minutes, then roast them in the oven with a little olive oil.
Conserver en dessous de 0 °C.
Le développement microbien est alors seulement ralenti.
Richesse de constitution et bonne présence alcoolique.
Mettez un bain-marie (assez grand pour accueillir un cul de poule) sur le feu.
Cassez 4 œufs dans le cul de poule.
Ajoutez-y 125 g de sucre en poudre et fouettez l'ensemble en mettant le cul de poule au bain-marie. (La température ne doit pas dépasser 50 °C pour ne pas cuire les œufs). Quand la température atteint 50 °C, retirez du bain-marie et continuez à fouetter jusqu'à refroidissement complet.
Mettez le four à préchauffer à 160 °C. Ajoutez alors, "en pluie", 125 g de farine et mélangez délicatement (en coupant).
Faites fondre 60 g de beurre, ajoutez-les et mélangez.
Mettez cet appareil dans un moule à silicone (ou bien un moule beurré et fariné).
Enfournez pour 25 à 30 min. (Au terme de la cuisson, en appuyant légèrement la paume de la main sur la génoise, celle-ci doit légèrement crisser).
Dès que cuit, sortez la génoise du four, démoulez-la et laissez-la refroidir.
1732-1799. First President of the USA.
Gibelotte is a ragoût (meat cooked in a sauce), but with white wine.
You can peel fresh ginger with a peeler knife, but it's even easier using a small spoon, especially between the "fingers"
Fresh ginger will keep for a long time, and even longer in the refrigerator.
For the kitchen, cut it very finely with a sharp knife, and use it sparingly.
Ginger has carminative properties.
Glouton, gourmand, gourmet
Classification des vins pratiquée dans certaines régions françaises : Bourgogne, Champagne, Libournais, Provence, Loire…
Richesse en alcool et en glycérine qui procure une impression de volume et de rondeur, avec un caractère moelleux, presque onctueux
Once picked, a salad can be preserved only a short time.
In plastic bags, check the use by date and rinse the salad (it is often prewashed with chlorinated water).
For a fresh salad, remove the core, rinse the leaves twice (changing the water) without letting soak, then wring out.
Store in the refrigerator in an airtight container. You can optionally add some wet paper.
When a salad is a little "tired" (old), immerse in hot water (not boiling), then in cool water.
(Note that it is the chef who determines by its preparation if the plant becomes "salad" or "vegetable").
-For tender salads:
Salt lightly with fine salt, stir and let confit for about 15 minutes.
Then dry it in a cloth.
In a large salad bowl add a little good oil (olive, walnut ...), stir again, season with freshly ground and possibly some herbs.
Finish with a touch of vinegar or lemon. Stir the whole thing.
-For rough salads (curly, dandelion ...) season with salt and pepper, a little oil and a hot vinegar.
A salad should be just oiled and not drowned (there should be no seasoning remaining at the bottom of the salad bowl).
Do not choose a vinegar too strong on delicate salads.
Cook 2 hard-boiled eggs (9 min when the water boils).
Soak them in cold water for a few moments.
Peel them and separate the yolks and whites.
In a large bowl, mash the yolks with a fork, add 1 teaspoon of Dijon mustard and 2 tablespoons of wine vinegar.
Whisk like a mayonnaise (with a mixer if necessary), gradually adding 25 cl of olive oil.
Add as a finish 1 tbsp. of capers, 4 chopped cornichons, 1 tbsp. of flat-leafed parsley chopped, leaves, 1 of chervil chopped leaves, and 1 of chopped chives.
Finally, add the chopped egg whites. (You can add finely chopped raw onions and garlic, and possibly small cubes of seeded tomatoes).
Grimod de La Reynière
Famous French gastronomic critic (1758-1837).
Coming from a noble family, Grimod, a fine taster and connoisseur of the arts of the table (he had organized famous dinners), found himself without resources during the French Revolution.
He then had the idea of writing the Almanach des Gourmands, between 1803 and 1812, to share his knowledge with the nouveau-rich bourgeois who were very demanding.
The almanac included a review of restaurants (a creation dating from the revolution) and the preparations of certain cooks.
For this purpose, with a jury of tasters, he invited anyone who wished to send him dishes every Tuesday, which were evaluated. The deliberation was secret, but in case of a negative verdict, the supplier could correct and resubmit.
The accuracy of the reviews and their reliability made them famous.
Grimod de La Reynière may be the originator of the dish-by-dish service (as opposed to putting all the dishes on the table), which is now called "Russian service".
From 1952 to 1993, Courtine, gastronomic critic for the newspaper Le Monde, used the pseudonym "La Reynière" to sign his posts.
Gris (vin gris)
The meat is halfway between chicken and game.
Before cooking, remove the maximum amount of fat from the inside by hand.
Remove the wishbone (cut will be easier).
Season outside but also inside of the bird.
Avoid overcooking (the meat will dry).
"Pintadeau" is a young guinea fowl.
hectare. Surface de 10 000 m2, généralement utilisée pour quantifier un vignoble. (1 ha est une petite surface, à peine plus qu'un terrain de football).
Selon le rendement de la vigne, pratiqué par le vigneron, 1 hectare de vigne peut produire des volumes très variables. Par exemple:
~10 hl (1 333 bouteilles) Château d'Yquem
~60 hl (8 000 bouteilles) Beaucoup de vins d'Appellation Protégée en France
Jusqu'à près de 100 hl (13 333 bouteilles) Certains champagne
~150 hl (20 000 bouteilles) Certains vins de cépages du nouveau monde ou bien les vins utilisés pour distiller le cognac.
Habiller: ébarber, arracher, écailler, vider et laver
Suggested dishes are halal according to Paris' Mosque.
But what drinks can you serve to the guest who wants to respect a halal diet?
For the aperitif: a citrus (orange, grapefruit, lemon…) or a vegetable juice (tomato/celery, cucumber/minth, parsley, carrot/cumin) or a mocktail.
With the meal: a vegetable juice (and water)
With cheese? Fresh goat cheese: tomato juice. Sharp goat cheese: a drink with honey or lavender. With blue cheese: a pear, apricot or prune juice. With soft paste (camembert, brie, munster…): apple juice
With dessert: a seasonal lightly sweetened juice (strawberry, raspberry, pear…)
Finish with an infusion, coffee or decaffeinated coffee.
In France: Cow that is more than 6 months old, and that has not borne a calf
1553-1610. King of France
Pay attention to the origin of the honey, and that it does not contain a proportion of...added sweet water!
Honey is usually made by bees from the nectar of flowers.
But they can also use honeydew, the sweet excrement of aphids. Honeydew honeys are often stronger and more expensive.
Acacia: sweet and liquid
Chestnut: brown, liquid, intense aromas
Lemon tree: crystallized, very clear, slightly acidic
Flowers: multiple spring and summer flowers
Lavender: clear and crystalline, fruity aroma, fresh on the palate (calm cough)
Pine: (honeydew honey). Liquid, strong aroma, woody and smoky (soothes throat and bronchi).
A closed glass pot, sheltered from the sun and temperature variations can be kept for 2 years, but once opened, do not wait too long.
If the crystallization displeases, just heat gently.
In the kitchen :
Do not hesitate to marry it with spices.
"Liquid honey" does not require acacia honey (expensive), another one slightly heated will become liquid.
Honey contains water, so consider it in recipes if you use it to replace sugar.
Better to put it at the end of cooking to keep its aromas, and not to exceed the thermostat 6 or 7 (it turns brown). Protect it possibly with lid / aluminum.
So that it does not adhere to a container, grease it (oil, butter).
In recipes, honey can be substituted for sugar (2 c sugar = 1.5 c of honey).
Crossing of two vitis (vines) of different types. For example vitis vinifera and vitis rupestra.
The Baco vine (used for Armagnac) thus comes from the folle blanche (vitis vinifera) and from the Noah itself a hybrid (vitis labrusca x vitis riparia).
Not to be confused with a "métis" or a "clone".
voir Indication géographique
Indication géographique (Vin, Cuisine)
En Europe, il peut exister pour le vin et la nourriture traditionnelle, deux niveaux d'indication géographique (IG) :
Le plus exigeant, est appelé en France AOC (Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée) ou bien AOP (Appellation d'Origine Protégée) au niveau européen. On trouve les équivalents en Espagne : DO (Denominación d’ Origen), DOCa Denominación de Origen Calificada, en Italie : DOC (Denominazione di Origne Controllata), DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita)…
L'autre, est appelé IGP (Indication Géographique Protégée).
Dans les deux cas, un cahier des charges spécifique à chaque produit garantit le lien avec le terroir (sol, microclimat et "recette"), et fait l'objet de contrôles.
(Quand un produit n'est pas lié à un lieu, mais uniquement à une "recette", il peut porter le nom d'une STG).
Une indication géographique n'est pas la certitude que le produit soit "meilleur", mais il l'est bien souvent !
Joséphine de Beauharnais
1763-1814. Première épouse de Napoléon Ier et impératrice des français.
In a tall glass, pour in an equivalent quantity:
- red wine (some leftover can do it, even if a little oxidized)
- a Cola
Add some ice cubes.
The name could come from "Kalimero" (the cartoon character).
In Basque, this is pronounced "calimotcho".
Kind of Decant
This wine may contain sediments.
We therefore advise you, if you do not decant the wine (to avoid shocking or even killing it by over-aerating it), to POUR IT DELICATELY INTO THE GLASSES, taking care to leave any sediments in the bottle.
This corresponds to a kind of decanting, without risk.
Beware, in France, "St-Jacques", and even "Coquille St-Jacques" are now sometimes used for other type of scallops or other shells. The taste is then quite different than the real Coquille St-Jacques: Pecten Maximus (the shell of the East Atlantic).
The one of the Mediterranean is Pecten Jacobeus.
On the East Coast of the USA, Placopecten magellanicus is usually found (smooth shell).
Make sure that the Latin name is mentioned on the packaging, which is mandatory in France (Some preparations sometimes push the vice by showing pictures of other scallops ... put in shells of Pecten Maximus).
In France a fresh shell can only be proposed during the fishing season (more or less restrictive, depending on the French regions).
Alive, it must be closed, or should close when touched; to buy it in shell is therefore preferable (to check freshness).
To prepare them:
- remove the "roe"(the genitalia, the orange part is female, the white part is male). The roe is empty during breeding (from June to September in France) and therefore sometimes did not have time to fill for areas that allow fishing from 1 October. Then, the longer we wait during the season, the bigger it is. If you eat it, cook it for a shorter time than the scallop itself.
- remove the gut (the membranous envelope around the scallop itself) and the protruding hard,
- rinse the scallop with water,
- then pat them dry with a paper towel. In many dishes we suggest that you flour them lightly before cooking.
Named after Felix Kir, the larger than life Mayor of Dijon, who served "white - cassis" (white wine + currants cream) to his guests. The Cassis-white wine mixture was in fact probably invented by Faivre, a Beaunois waiter.
Félix Kir regularly asking for "blanc cassis" at the Assemblée Nationale (French Parliament) in the 1950s, Parisian journalists ended up giving his name to the mixture.
20% Cassis cream (if possible with 20% of alcohol, the best ones), and the rest with dry white wine (typically an aligoté from Burgundy). You can eventually re-use some white wine leftover, even if a bit too much aired.
20% Crème de cassis (preferably 20% alcohol), and
80% Breton sparkling cider.
Named after Félix Kir, the truculent mayor of Dijon, who served "blanc cassis" to his guests, but is by no means the inventor of the mixture.
20% Cream (if possible with 20% of alcohol, the best ones), and 80 % of dry red wine.
-Félix Kir, the truculent mayor of Dijon, who served "blanc cassis" to his guests (but is not the inventor of the blend).
-and the color of the Prelate's robe.
20% Crème de Cassis (if possible with 20% of alcohol, the best ones), and
80 % non-vintage brut champagne, or Crémant-de-Bourgogne.
-Félix Kir, the truculent mayor of Dijon, who served "blanc cassis" to his guests (but is by no means the inventor of the cocktail)
-and "royal" since the basic Kir is without bubbles.
Kneaded butter (beure manié)
Gives a little consistency/texture to a sauce, without changing its taste too much.
This way the flour will not form lumps.
Soften (don't melt) 50 g butter, then stir in 2 tbsp. flour.
Then put the sauce to boil on very low heat (simmering).
Add gradually while whisking the butter in small nuts, until you get the consistency you want. (You may not need to use all the kneaded butter).
Some people prefer to first heat the sauce, then momentarily remove it from the fire while thickening it, and then put it back on the heat.
Suggested dishes follow the kashrut of the Consistory of Paris.
If your guest also wants to drink kosher?
Some appellations or wines can be kosher, but we did not list them.
Simply check that the label shows a kosher logo. Those wines generally don’t contain any fining agent and were made with a Jewish person attending.
Else you can also propose drinks without alcohol.
Laitier (for a cheese)
Is used for a cheese made in a "laiterie" (a business which buys milk from several dairy farms).
Hence the milk comes from different herds and can be sometimes collected far away.
In some regions, those “laiteries” have been called "fruitières".
This was done for cheeses requiring a lot of milk (large cheeses).
Today, this can be the sign of an industrial cheese.
Some “laitiers” cheeses have a red sticker/pellet (whereas “fermiers” ones – made at the farm – might have a green one).
See laitier (cheese)
In France sheep of less than 1 year.
But often lamb become adult at around 6 months.
Try to stick to young ones to avoid the strong mutton flavor.
Ordre religieux fondé par Saint Vincent de Paul.
Be careful to properly clean your leeks. For that :
- cut the base on the roots side,
- shorten the green by eliminating the hard part,
- remove the first two leaves forming the bark on the whole (green and white),
- with a sharp knife, split in 2 the leek in the length halfway up from white to green,
- redo likewise at 90 °
- bathe and rinse in water to remove ALL grains of sand.
A medium-sized leek is a good compromise between quick wash and tender leek (the heart of big leeks can be hard).
The green of the leeks can be used after washing in a soup or bouquet garni.
The leek is the "symbol" of "Mérite agricole" French medal.
After the alcoholic fermentation and then the possible malolactic fermentation, particles appear and settle at the bottom of the container: the lees. These are dead yeasts, bacteria and organic compounds.
If the wine is kept in contact with these lees ("aging on the lees"), they will partly dissolve, bringing to the wine body, aromas, freshness. They can possibly be stirred ("Bâtonnage") periodically to help this dissolution.
The lees also protect the wine from oxidation during aging.
Donner de la consistance à une sauce en ajoutant farine, crème, fécule ou œufs.
Liqueur (vin de)
Jus de raisin plus ou moins fermenté dont la fermentation est stoppée par mutage : on adjoint de l'eau de vie ou bien de l'alcool. Les levures sont alors tuées, et les sucres restant du jus de raisin (sucres "résiduels") donnent alors un goût sucré à la boisson.
Pour le pineau des Charentes, le floc de Gascogne, le ratafia champenois ou bourguignon, ou le Macvin du Jura, le mutage se fait avec de l'eau de vie, et en tout début de fermentation (alors que moins de 17 g de sucre ont été transformés en 1% d'alcool).
D'autres (tels que : Rasteau, Maury, Banyuls, Muscat-de-Rivesaltes, autres muscats...), appelés "Vins Doux Naturels" (VDN), sont mutés par le vigneron avec de l'alcool vinique (à plus de 96 %), et quand plus de la moitié des sucres a été transformée en alcool. Le porto est également muté pendant la fermentation.
À ne pas confondre avec les "Vins naturellement doux", qui ne sont pas mutés.
Vin à caractère très sucré.
En général, en fonction du sucre, on parle de :
4 - 12 g/l doux
12 - 45 g/l moelleux
> 45 g/l liquoreux
Torchon pour essuyer verres et carafes.
Ceux en microfibre sèchent rapidement, et ne peluchent pas !
-with a bit of limestone on the carapace (sign that they are full), and with a hard carapace head (press the sides to check).
-With long antennas (sign that they did not spend too much time in an aquarium).
-Alive. A lobster bought alive and just cooked is usually superior to a lobster already cooked (you do not know when it was cooked).
-but not too large.
For 4 people, 2 lobsters (rather than a huge one) provide a claw to everyone.
In Europe, “Breton” lobster (Homarus gammarus), tastier, is dark blue when alive. In reality it could come from anywhere in northern Europe.
The “Canadian” one (Homarus americanus) is brown-orange. Tasted in Europe it is often disappointing because it spends long months in basins before being imported at the end of the year.
To cook/boil the animals (forbidden in some countries), do it without removing the possible string blocking the claws, in salted water with a bit of vinegar (10 min for animals of 500 g, 15 min for 1 kg , and 20 min for 1.5 kg). When you break the animal head, remove any potential plastics bits "eaten" by the lobster...
In some dishonest restaurants the scams can be numerous:
-replace in the kitchen a lobster chosen alive in the dining room's aquarium by a frozen lobster (a 2nd aquarium awaits the lobster in the kitchen).
- serve monkfish meat… in a lobster shell.
1822-1895. Effectue des recherches sur l'évolution des vins et de la bière ; il détermine l'effet des microbes et propose un chauffage des vins (pasteurisation).
King of France
Roi de France.
1638-1715. Roi de France.
“Mandatory” grapes are for sure in the wine.
The others (“Optional”) might be in the wine.
Using (or not) a type of grape, and its percentage do vary within an "Appellation" (Protected Designation of Origin) from one estate to the other. Even for the same wine, this can change from one vintage to the other.
Marinade (red meat)
75 cl of strong red wine (not too light). Possibly some leftover, even with a little defect, may be suitable. If you have less wine, lower the quantities of the other ingredients proportionally (or flip the meat several times so that all the sides get soaked).
15 cl of olive oil,
1 tbsp. of wine vinegar,
2 carrots peeled,
1 peeled onion,
Thyme and rosemary,
Mix the ingredients in a container, and soak the red meat (or game).
Cover and store 1 day minimum (if possible) in the refrigerator.
Marinade (white meat, fish)
50 cl of dry white wine (or dry sparkling wine, or dry rosé, or brut cider). You can use some leftover, even if a small defect.
10 cl of olive oil,
The juice of half a lemon,
Thyme, rosemary, dried Provence herbs,
Freshly ground pepper, cumin.
Mix all ingredients in a container, then:
- put the vegetables, white meat, or fish to soak in this closed container in the refrigerator,
- mix from time to time to soak everything well,
- let 1 to 2 hours for fish, and 1/2 day for meat and vegetables.
Avoid fresh herbs (parsley, tarragon ...) that can ferment quickly. They will be more suitable after cooking.
Marquer une grillade
Saisir à feu très vif pour faire "caraméliser" la chair en surface.
Si vous ne disposez pas d'un barbecue, vous pouvez néanmoins marquer vos grillades (four, plancha…). Pour cela, utilisez une tige de métal rougie au feu (cheminée, fourneau à gaz…). Avant cuisson, appliquez la tige et variez les décors : bandes, croisillons…
Pour les poissons, après les avoir écaillés, farinez-les légèrement (pour enlever le "poisseux") puis seulement marquez-les.
Fish, eel... cooked with wine and onions.
Maximum Legal alcohol while driving
In France it was 0.8 g/l of blood in 1983,
then 0.5 g/l since 1995 (equivalent to 0.25 mg per liter of exhaled air).
Since 2004, it is 0.2 g/l for public transport drivers.
During the probationary driving license period, the maximum rate is 0.2 g/l.
The maximum alcohol level is reached 1/2 h after drinking on an empty stomach,
and 1 hour after drinking during a meal.
The blood alcohol level drops from 0.1 to 0.15 g/l per hour.
If possible, first bring all ingredients to room temperature.
In a high-edge bowl, put the extra-fresh egg yolk (less than 9 days old), 1 tbsp. Dijon mustard (you can do without, if it's with, we can also call the mayonnaise a "rémoulade") and 1 pinch of salt.
Stir well with the electric beater.
Then add progressively, while continuing to mix, the oil (preferably choose mainly a vegetable oil with neutral taste: canola, sun flower… which can be supplemented by a stronger oil: olive...).
At the end, a hint of vinegar (or lemon juice) can be added.
If you pepper, prefer a white pepper (avoid small black dots that look like "fly droppings").
Keep beating to thicken the mayonnaise.
At the last moment, add a little oil and stir just a little (gives shine).
Serve immediately (storage in the refrigerator, necessary after a while, disintegrates the mayonnaise because the oil freezes).
Invented roughly at the same time as beer, (7000 BC) and before wine, probably from an observation that rainwater fell on a honeycomb had fermented (Mead is fermentation water sweetened with honey and with yeast).
The drink then coexisted with wine and beer, in two great varieties: young or aged (up to 10 years). It was stored in amphorae, sometimes annotated with painting.
If you add a fresh apple juice to mead at fermentation start, you get the Breton "Chouchen".
Meal with kid(s)
For children, we propose, accompanying their usual glass of water, to serve exceptionally some grape juice, in a glass identical to that of adults, and of the same color of wine that adults will taste.
You can even sometimes find grape juice from "wine grapes" (i.e. from grape varieties used to make wine: Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon...).
Wine composed of grape varieties used for Bordeaux appellations (red or white) and where no grape variety exceeds 90% of the blend.
This designation was created by an association of producers from Napa Valley, in the USA; winegrowers who use it get invoiced.
C'est probablement la méthode de fabrication de vin effervescent la plus ancienne, d'où son nom.
Elle est basée sur une unique fermentation du jus de raisin, fractionnée par étapes:
- La fermentation alcoolique du jus de raison est arrêtée à mi-parcours par refroidissement (avant que les levures aient transformés tous les sucres en alcool).
- On stocke alors ce vin au froid,
- Au printemps, le vin est mis en bouteille. Avec la remontée des températures, la fermentation reprend alors, dégageant du gaz qui reste piégé dans le vin (c'est la "prise de mousse"). Pas d'ajout de sucre (liqueur de tirage).
- On refroidit alors à nouveau le vin, pour arrêter cette prise de mousse.
- Enfin, on clarifie le vin en expulsant le dépôt (dégorgement), on le rebouche (sans ajout de liqueur d'expédition) et pose un muselet sur la bouteille.
Ceci produit des vins effervescents de faible pression (environ 3 bars), peu alcoolisés, et doux (sucre entre 20 et 80 g/l).
Croisement de deux vignes de type vitis vinifera.
Par exemple : le pinotage provient du pinot noir et du cinsault.
A ne pas confondre avec un hybride ou bien un clone.
Rinse a bunch of flat parsley, thin it and chop the leaves.
Pour some flour into a flat container and put the fillets one by one, flipping them over to cover them with flour.
Tap each fillet to remove excess flour.
(The use of flour is of course the origin of the name of this preparation. "Meunière" means miller in French).
In a large skillet, melt butter and add a splash of oil.
When the butter has finished foaming, put the fillets, (possibly skin side first).
Add salt and pepper.
Let it cook 3 to 4 minutes depending on the thickness,
then flip the fillets carefully, and brown for 2 min.
(Fillets should turn golden and crisp but do not overcook).
Arrange each fillet on a plate.
Remove the fat from the pan.
Add a knob of butter in this pan and cook until foamy.
Throw in the chopped parsley, mix, and pour on the fillets.
Michel de Montaigne
1533-1592. Philosophe français
Faire bouillir, tout doucement.
There are really no differences (allergies from an immune system or digestive intolerance ...) between cow's milk and other animals.
But sheep's milk is a little fatter than cow's milk and goat's milk.
Cow milk :
- "Cru" (Raw): The best! Contains a flora with nearly 3 M of germs (important for immunology, and taste). Bottle with a yellow cap. Keep in the fridge and use quickly.
- "Entier" (Fresh, whole & pasteurized): It is homogenized (fat molecules are broken down) and is like UHT milk: totally dead.
- "Micro filtré" Micro filtered: also dead, but tastes better than pasteurized milk.
- Pasteurized in a bain-marie: this slow process makes it possible to preserve some germs.
- "Biologique" (green cap) Organic: from cows fed with organic food. Bottle with green cap.
In our recipes, it is not forbidden to "improve" the milk (when necessary) with a hint of crème fraîche.
When adult, intolerance to lactose because of lack of enzyme to assimilate (lactase) is the world standard, except in ... the European populations.
In France, soy beverage can not be called "milk" because it does not come from a mammal.
In a champagne flute, pour in an equivalent quantity:
-a juice of freshly squeezed oranges (store the oranges in the refrigerator so that the juice is cold) and filtered,
-Champagne or a sparkling cold white wine (a little wine, even with some small defect, may be suitable).
If there is a bit of pulp, pour cautiously (it can make a lot of bubbles).
You can :
-strengthen it with a little triple sec (Cointreau ...)
-add a thin slice of orange previously rinsed.
The name of the cocktail comes of course from its color, reminiscent of mimosa flowers.
Qui évoque l'odeur et/ou le goût de certains minéraux/roches (silex chauffés, sel, hydrocarbures, coquillages…).
C'est généralement le cas des "vins de terroir" provenant de vignes à profondes racines poussant sur des sols particuliers.
Minimum lead time to have dish AND drink ready.
Takes into account:
- cooking (maceration, baking…)
- preparation of the drink (airing…)
There are a lot of varieties of mints.
Some big families:
-spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the mint common in gardens. It is appreciated raw or cooked.
-peppermint (Mentha piperita) has a reddish stem. It is appreciated especially raw because its cooked flavors are not pleasant. This is for example the one used for the British mint sauce.
-nanah mint, is used in Morocco for mint tea.
Mint can be used fresh or dried.
Dried: picking must take place before it gets too hot, then the bouquets are put upside down in a cool place (<36 ° C - 310 °K), without light (to keep the color) and well ventilated (to dry) .
The scent of mint comes from leaves, not stems.
Deux définitions existent :
- Perception tactile : (Pour un vin sec blanc ou bien rouge) consistance agréable et onctueuse (cf. gras)
- Ou bien caractère assez sucré d'un vin blanc. En général, en fonction du sucre, on parle de :
4 - 12 g/l doux
12 - 45 g/l moelleux
> 45 g/l liquoreux
Moines de Saint Martin
Enlever la peau de certains légumes (tomates…) ou fruits (pêches, prunes, amandes, pistaches…) : plongez quelques secondes dans l'eau bouillante, rafraichissez-les ensuite dans une eau glacée (pour stopper la cuisson), puis pelez-les.
(Synonyme de émonder).
Une appellation viticole est "monopôle" quand un seul vigneron/domaine la produit.
L'appellation, elle, reste toutefois propriété de la collectivité.
C'est par exemple de la cas de la Romanée-Conti.
1689-1755. Philosophe français.
Do not confuse morels (Morchella) with gyromiters (Gyromitra), which are the "false morels" (but still good and a little less expensive).
Fresh morels are ideal (cooking, mandatory, removes toxicity). Dried morels, however, are preferred to frozen morels. (For 100 g of fresh or frozen morels, count 20 g of dried morels).
In the case of dried morels, soak them for 2 hours in a bowl of warm water to rehydrate them. Then filter this water and keep it.
Whether fresh, frozen or rehydrated, morels or gyromiters:
Open them lightly with a knife and rinse them several times, to remove all grains of sand (inside and outside).
Then blanch them by plunging them 4 minutes in boiling water (use the soaking water if the morels were dry), finally refresh them in cold water, and dry them by pressing them gently, then use an absorbing paper .
Put 5 cl of whipping cream in the freezer.
Melt 125 g butter in a bain-marie to clarify it (remove the whey, the white part that usually settles in the bottom).
In a saucepan, mix 1 tbsp. Dijon mustard with 1 tbsp. of cold water.
Add 2 egg yolks and whisk this sabayon in a bain-marie until it becomes foamy.
Away from the heat, add the melted butter (clarified) in a small batches, whipping.
Then add the juice of 1/2 lemon.
Whisk separately the 5 cl whipping cream (cold).
When it is firm, gradually incorporate it to the sauce.
Season to taste (salt / pepper).
Vin effervescent qui, conditionné en bouteille, présente une surpression supérieure à 3 bars à 20° Celsius.
(Parmi les effervescents, on distingue en fonction de la quantité de gaz : perlant, pétillant et mousseux)
Le crémant est un vin mousseux ayant une appellation d'origine.
Italian cheese, coming originally from Sicily. "Mozzare" means cut off in Italian.
The "di bufala campana" mozzarella is made from buffalo milk, a PDO (protected design of origin) and much more savourious that the "fior de latte" which generally contains 90% cow milk.
The "di bufala campana" mozzarella displays a buffalo logo.
Keep it in a refrigerator (it is first becomes softer, then becomes harder after a while).
But the "Fior de latte" can be interesting still because it retains more the water and gives less moisture to a pizza crust. Burrata is a kind of very creamy mozzarella, from Cow or buffalo milk.
Many recipes exist according to the regions or customs.
Here is the one we practice:
Choose a bottle of red and colored wine (like: Côtes-du-Rhône, Gaillac, Saint-Chinian, Faugères ... or Vin de France). It is not necessary to use a prestigious wine, but it must be good (not corked, not too aired ...). A bad wine will remain so, even by "trying to hide the misery".
Add 25 cl. of squeezed orange juice (without zest or seeds) and the juice of 1/2 lemon.
To thicken the preparation, add 3 tablespoons of currant jelly (or similar jam with pectin). Season with freshly ground pepper, 1 cinnamon stick, 2-3 cloves, 1 or 2 stars of star anise, and potentially a split vanilla pod. Finish with 2 spoons of crème de cassis.
Boil it all once (by this boiling, the degree of alcohol is reduced),
then let cool down with a lid for at least 15 minutes.
Filter everything using a fine sieve.
Warm up again and serve very hot in large cups.
Formerly mulled wine was served to children on the night of December 31, to make them wait until the New Year.
Armature métallique servant à maintenir le bouchon des bouteilles de champagne, vins mousseux, pétillants…
In France only 2 varieties can be called only "mussels":
-the Atlantic one (Mytilus edulis), available in summer and until Christmas.
-the Mediterranean one (twice larger): Mytilus galloprovincialis (sometimes also present in the Atlantic). It is available all year round.
Others who come from further, must obligatorily specify their variety.
Whatever they are, we prefer them a little big.
The inside of the mussel is called the "poisson" (the fish).
"Bouchot" mussels (raised on piles in the foreshore) are a TSG. This gives a small but fleshy mussel, very yellow and tasty.
When they are "from Mont-St-Michel bay" it is an AOC / AOP, with a minimum size, available from July 15th to January.
Ready-to-cook mussels ("PAC") are already cleaned (byssus removed or "debyssussées"), otherwise do not forget to do it. Rinse with fresh water. Check that all mussels are alive (closed, smelling good); remove the mussels that may be open and that will not close again.
Cook them in a large enough container (or put fewer mussels) so that they can all open.
The liter is the old traditional measure corresponding to about 1 individual serving, i.e. 700-800 g.
"Fine" mustard is a seed-free mustard, unlike "à l'ancienne" (old-fashioned) mustard.
Crushed with a stone grinder, mustard heats less and loses fewer aromas.
The name could come from the Latin "Mustum Ardum" (spicy must - grape juice added to the seed).
Il n'existe pas de définition du vin nature, mais l'association des vins naturels tente d'en apporter une.
Les vins doivent être biologique ou biodynamique. De plus, la vendange doit être manuelle, la fermentation uniquement avec des levures indigènes.
Rien ne peut être ajouté au chais, mis à part un tout petit peu de souffre : 30 mg/l max pour les rouges et 40 pour les blancs, bien moins qu'en agriculture conventionnelle, ou même biologique.
Cette quasi absence de souffre rend les vins fragiles, notamment aux changement de températures, manipulations physiques... Si un vin nature est souvent bon chez un vigneron, loin de chez lui, c'est parfois "la roulette russe" ; il peut repartir en fermentation, développer d'étranges odeurs, etc...
N'hésitez pas alors à les carafer longuement pour dégazer !
Nature n'est pas un label de qualité du vin.
In autumn, with alternating wet fogs and warm sunny afternoons, Botrytis cinerea can develop. During this period of over-ripening of the grapes, if this fungus develops on the surface of the unbroken berries, it participates in their sugar concentration by pumping some of their water. It also degrades some of the natural acids (tartaric acid) in the grapes. It is then called "noble rot", because not only will the grape juice be sweeter, but it will also contain a whole series of highly complex aroma precursors. Indeed, the aromas that will develop afterwards will be candied orange, pineapple, quince...
The grapes are then harvested by hand, generally in successive passes (so that only those with sufficient noble rot are chosen). The wines are sweet because during the alcoholic fermentation, at a certain point, the alcohol created becomes too high, killing the yeasts when they have not finished transforming all the sugars into alcohol.
If, on the contrary, the fungus spreads on damaged berries, the aromas will not develop, and this is known as "grey rot".
Several regions sometimes allow the development of noble rot: Sauternes, Angers, Alsace…
Non traité (agriculture)
voir Agriculture biologique
à ne pas confondre avec "œnophile" (amateur de vin).
L'œnologue connait la biologie et la chimie de la fabrication du vin (fermentation, élevage).
Il est diplômé d'œnologie.
Le vigneron fait de plus en plus souvent appel à lui sous forme de conseil.
fraise = tripe
amourette = spine
fressure = heart, liver, lung
mou = lung
rognons = kidney
animelles = teste.
All oils are composed of 100% lipids (by definition it is a fatty substance, liquid above 15 ° C / 59 °F, otherwise it is just a "fat"). Certain oils can thus become cloudy when they are cold.
If it starts smoking when cooked, oil becomes toxic, throw it away. Each oil has a "critical temperature", so there are different possible uses based on oil types.
Vary the oils, but do not mix them to keep their style (except perhaps for some mayonnaises).
For frying, change the oil every 4 to 5 uses. Change it when you change food (it gets the taste). Filter it (cheesecloth strainer ...) between each use and once cooled, store it in a place sheltered from air, and write the type of food and number of uses.
Fry by small batches so that the temperature stays around 180 ° C / 350 °F. The smaller the food to be fried, the more fatty it is likely to be when fried. After frying, put the food on a paper towel to degrease it.
Do not throw an old oil in the sink (it pollutes and may freeze), put it in a closed container and throw it away (trash or ecological collection).
Oils sold in Europe must mention their origin. Prefer Appellations or oils coming from a single place.
Olive oil ages badly, it is better to consume it in its production year. Packaging in a can (or in a glass bottle, not transparent and protected from light) and storage in a cool place protect from rancidity. Be sure to consume it within 3-4 months of opening.
There are different qualities:
-"huile d'olive vierge extra" (extra virgin olive oil) the most powerful, the least acidic and in theory the best,
-"huile d'olive vierge" (virgin olive oil),
-"Huile d’olive” (olive oil, which is refined, unlike " virgins "), and
-"huile de grignons d'olive” (olive-pomace oil).
There are 3 families of tastes:
-green fruity (harvest a few days before maturity, these are the most aromatic with herbaceous sensations, artichoke, pepper…),
-ripe fruity (ripe and black olives, little bitterness, almond aromas, red fruit, linden ...) and
-black fruity (early fermentation of olives, creamy oil with aromas of cocoa, mushrooms ...).
The mention "1ere pression à froid” (first cold press) is now pure marketing, because thanks to progress, we nowadays only press like that.
Prefer to buy olives with pit, even if they must be pitted in the recipe.
Many black olives are not green olives that have become ripe, but are tinted with additives (iron salts). In this case, they remain firm and do not have the same taste.
Peel and slice 4-5 large onions (red if possible, else pink). (Avoid spring onions which remain firm).
Cook them over medium heat in 60 g of butter and with a little sweet wine. (A rest of wine, even a little to aired, may be suitable). Some put a little sugar instead.
Stop when all the wine is integrated (a good half hour).
Some add a little chilli powder.
Let cool in the pan.
(Can be kept in the refrigerator for a few days).
Note: if you have red onions and want to keep a jam red, add lemon juice at the beginning of cooking. Some add a bit of herbs (rosemary, thyme…) super thinely chopped during cooking.
Gently undust the bottle.
Cut out protecting the cap, just below the neck of the bottle. (The wine should not touch the cap, for hygiene reasons).
If the bottle is sealed with wax, attack it directly with the corkscrew, and remove the cork halfway up. (A wax disc will come off). Clean the neck so that no splinters fall into the wine, then completely remove the cork.
Use an appropriate corkscrew (see corkscrew in the glossary).
Opening in advance allows any undesirable odors to escape (the wine oxygenating through the neck, very slowly, in contact with the air), but also to identify if the wine ever has a defect ("corked" wine ...) by immediately smelling and tasting a very small first glass. (Tasting ostensibly, if the guests were present, proved that we were not trying to poison them!).
In the event of a problem, open the "spare bottle" and try to console yourself by possible reuse indicated (section With leftovers or light flaw).
Take advantage of the opening to check if the inscriptions on the cork match the label on the bottle.
Also check that the cork is not completely soaked (it would have lost its seal, the wine may then age faster or be damaged).
Keep the cork near the bottle during the tasting, in case of discussion.
For sparkling wines:
Gently clean the bottle and avoid shaking it.
Remove the top of the trim (often precut).
Orient the bottle in a safe direction.
Untwist the wire cap while keeping your thumb on the top of the cap (to prevent it from leaving).
Remove the wire.
Block the stopper with one hand, and turn the bottle by its base in one direction then in the other.
Dampen the extraction by letting the pressure come out gently.
(If the occasion requires a festive moment, approach a flute and let the stopper go loudly. Some occasions, preferably outdoors, even allow it to be cut).
Check if the inscriptions on the cap match the label on the bottle.
Also check that the cap is not shriveled (it would have lost its seal).
Keep the cap and the capsule near the bottle for tasting in case of discussion or collection.
An "Orange" wine is made with white skin grapes, like a red wine (skins macerate in the tank several weeks). It can also be nicknamed "skin contact".
Over the weeks, the wine:
-becomes orangy (“white” grapes are more “yellow-orange”), hence the name “orange wine”
-gets tannins (located below the grapes skin), providing some astringency, like a tea.
Moreover, many winegrowers making those wines like them:
-unfiltered (hence wines are not always clear)
-with little or no added sulfite (smell can be oxidative)
This kind of wine, a bit wild, are a niche market often enjoyed by hipsters.
In France they are mostly produced in the Loire Valley. (Otherwise in Georgia).
European definition (varies outside the EU).
Cultivation without the use of pesticides, fungicides or chemical herbicides for at least 3 years before harvest.
Controls are carried out by independent organizations and then allow the use of the European organic logo. (The flag with a leaf made up of stars).
"Untreated" only means that the product has not received any AFTER harvest treatment.
Some "conventional" agricultural products can be extremely processed, we therefore particularly suggest the use of organic ones: bananas, apples, peppers, citrus fruits.
Often it is not enough to wash or peel conventional agricultural products, because the treatments are systemic, that is, they get inside.
However, it will still be necessary to rinse organic products well (which may have rolled in the gutter…).
Some (rare) products are generally not subject to any treatment, so the organic label in this case does not really add value.
Since 2012 a European wine can be "organic" (Biologique). Previously, only the grapes were "from organic farming". The grapes are then cultivated without pesticides, fungicides or herbicides (but Bordeaux mixture remains authorized in limited quantities) from vines that have not been treated for at least 3 years.
In the cellar, certain (organic) products can be used to filter the wine, clarify it, acidify it, sweeten it ... Thermovinification is limited to 70 ° C. The sulfur is limited to 150 mg / l for whites (210 when the wine is not organic), and 100 mg / l for reds (160 when the wine is not organic).
Compliance with the organic specifications is verified by a third party, which then authorizes the application of the European organic logo on the label: a leaf with stars.
In the USA, the definition of an organic wine differs (for example no sulfur can be added at all).
"Biologique" is not a quality label for wine (there are good and bad ones).
Not to be confused with "natural" wines, or "biodynamic" wines.
Unité de surface de vigne souvent utilisée en Bourgogne et correspondant à 4,28 ares (soit 428 m2).
C'est à peu près la surface bêchable par un ouvrier en une journée.
- "creuses" (hollow), originating from Japan (specie crassostrea giga, also called magallana gigas) and from Canada. Anglo-Saxons call them "Pacific oysters".
- "plates" (flat) originating in France (specie ostrea edulis) and nicknamed "belon", "bouzigue" or "gravette" according to the place of production in France. Cancale is location particularly famous. Anglo-Saxons call them "European flat oysters".
The Portuguese ones disappeared since 1973.
But there is also a wild oyster.
Size of the oysters defines its size: from 0 to 5 for creuses oysters, from 000 to 6 for plates oysters. The smaller the number, the larger the size of the oyster.
The extremes "papillon" (butterflies) or "pied de cheval" (horse's foot) are particular. Prefer for the creuses a size 2 or 3, and 1 or 2 for the plates.
"Fine" or "special" are indications of filling: the "special" being fleshier than the "fine".
The "boudeuse" (sulky) is a small "special" having had 1 growth problem. It can be the size of a 5 but the weight of a 3. A tasty anomaly but still misunderstood.
"Claire" is a specific reference to Marennes-Oléron and means that the oyster has been refined in a pool of seawater for 2 to 6 months.
An oyster raised anywhere (for example abroad), becomes "Charentaise" after having spent ... 1 month of finish in Charentes.
Buy oysters only when they are allowed for sale, and heavy (if they have kept their water, they are alive).
Keep them unopened for up to 10 days in the crisper drawer of the refrigerator (between 5 and 10 °C / 40-50 °F). You can put a weight on top to prevent them from opening and losing their water.
The normal oyster, "diploid", contains 10 pairs of 2 chromosomes.
During months without "r" (May to August) natural oysters reproduce and release a milky/white reproduction liquid, unappetizing for many. (Moreover those are warm month. When there was no refrigeration/electricity , it was difficult to keep oysters alive during the long journeys to the consumer).
"Traditionnels" oyster farmers (see http://www.ostreiculteurtraditionnel.fr) sometimes also labelled "origine naturelle" offer these oysters. They are conceived at sea where the farmers collect them. Then farmers raise them for 4 years. Expect them to be all different from each other !
Since 1997, the "triploid" oyster (10 pairs of 3 chromosomes) was created by genetic manipulation of IFREMER. It is without introduction of gene (therefore, it is not a GMO). The produced oyster is sterile, its texture is therefore constant throughout the year (no white liquid) and moreover, it is edible after 2 years only.
But since its introduction, a virus destroys the oysters of some parks.
In addition, the triploid is obtained in hatcheries by diploid and tetraploid crossbreeding. But tetraploid ones have leaked into the wild, and thus create sterile triploids!
The triploid has become the majority in France, and carries no mention allowing to be identified by the consumer.
However, it can usually be identified by the presence of a peduncle ("clog extremity") at its hinge, because mass produced in hatcheries, it did not need to attach to the collectors deposited in sea.
Finally, the "biologique" - organic - certification, extremely rare, guarantees diploid oysters.
Shuck cautiously the oysters with a special knife and at the last moment.
Once the oyster is open, clean the knife (pass the blade on the palm of your hand or on a cloth) before opening the next one, to remove any small chips.
If you have a doubt about the freshness of an oyster (bad smell or no longer moving), discard it.
Remove a bit of its water (the oyster will release some more later) and store the open oyster in a cool place, flat, the hollow shell towards the ground, so that it keeps the 2nd water and remains alive. Put the flat shell (lid) on top.
In case of reluctance to raw oysters, cooked oysters can be a good introduction.
Ambient temperature, not in the sun, protected from animals, and without excessive humidity.
En matière d'accord mets-vin, on ne peut qu'essayer d'atteindre la perfection.
En effet, trop de paramètres rendent la démarche bien trop aléatoire :
-a-t-on bien dormi la nuit précédente ?
-Le vin dégusté est-il bien élevé ?
-Le mets ne comporte-t-il pas un clou de girofle dans lequel on va croquer par mégarde ?
Nous vous donnons quelques pistes pour tenter de l'atteindre et éviter les écueils les plus grossiers.
Toutefois certains accords fonctionnent généralement (même si le goût reste une affaire personnelle) :
Accords semblables :
Simples (ex : mets sucré et vin sucré), ou plus élaborés (ex : chocolat (sucré & amer) + banyuls (sucré & amer)
Accords contrastés (provocateurs ?) :
Foie de volaille (salé & amer) - Coteaux-du-layon (sucré & acide)
Parsley butter (Maître d'hôtel)
Take out 100 g of unsalted butter from the refrigerator and keep it at room temperature.
Rinse, remove the stem and dry the leaves of a bunch of parsley (preferably flat parsley) then chop it finely.
Peel and finely chop a small shallot, rinse under water and let dry. (This will guarantee a better preservation of the butter).
Squeeze the juice of 1/2 lemon.
Mix the butter, shallot, lemon juice, parsley, a bit of salt and pepper to obtain a homogeneous preparation.
Using a plastic wrap (or parchment paper), roll the butter to make a roll and place in the refrigerator until the last minute.
Cut it into discs with a knife heated in hot water.
Pâte à choux
Mettez dans une casserole 25 cl d’eau, 1 pincée de sel et 60 g de beurre,
Portez à ébullition.
Dès que le beurre est fondu, ajoutez d’un coup toute la farine dans la préparation.
Avec une spatule de bois, travaillez sans arrêt le mélange (à feu moyen) pour dessécher la pâte, jusqu’à ce qu’elle forme une boule bien homogène.
Retirez du feu et laissez tiédir.
Ajoutez (hors du feu) 4 œufs (ils ne doivent pas cuire). Il faut les incorporer 1 à 1 en mélangeant, pour qu’ils soient entièrement absorbés par la pâte.
La pâte devient alors collante. (Elle doit "faire le drapeau").
Pâte à ravioles
Mélangez 200 g de farine, 2 jaunes d'œufs et 1 pincée de sel. Pétrissez au batteur (crochet) à petite vitesse en y versant doucement 2 cl d'huile d'olive et un peu d'eau pour obtenir une boule homogène pas trop molle. Laissez ensuite reposer au réfrigérateur 2 h au moins. Coupez la pâte en 2 ou 3 morceaux pour pouvoir plus facilement l'étaler au rouleau jusqu'à obtenir une pâte très fine.
The pear is a climacteric fruit (which ripens easily after picking). No problem therefore to buy it when it is not yet ripe.
Keep it cold in the fridge vegetable drawer and mature it outside of the fridge over a few days. The process is accelerated in proximity to other ripe fruits producing ethylene (like bananas ...).
Once ripe, it must be eaten quickly. Period when it is best is actually very short.
Once peeled, it turns brown quickly (less when it is put back in the cold and drizzled with lemon juice).
The pear is available almost all year long because there are many varieties.
autumn: Hardy, comice, conference,
winter: crassane ...).
France has a delicacy specialty "poire tapée" (beaten pear).
The pear is peeled, then dried in an oven. Finally it is pressed, rather than beaten, to remove the inside air.
The pear can then be preserved for years. Taste is concentrated and properties are keept since the fruit wasn't cooked.
This was used a lot by sailors.
Peler à vif (cuisine)
Pepper tree is a liana that wraps around other crops.
The pepper fruit (piper nigrum, the most common) can be of several colors:
-green (not ripe yet). Green pepper is quickly perishable (keep it in the refrigerator). It is often put in brine, roasted or dried.
-black (almost ripe, the berry being picked yellow, its skin becomes brown / black and wrinkled upon drying). It's the strongest of all peppers.
-white (picked at full maturity and washed to get rid of its skin). This pepper is finer, with "animal" flavors and less pungent than black pepper. Ground in a dish, it will not give an appearance of "fly dung". The gray pepper is a powder resulting from the mixture of the black skin and the white almond.
-red (very ripe, then dried out of the light to keep the color). Red pepper is rare and expensive. It has aromas of citrus and pineapple.
The fruit of the piper longum (more rare) is the long pepper, very aromatic.
The Sichuan "pepper" is not a real pepper.
Purchase the pepper rather in small quantity and with whole berries (not ground). It can be kept for up to 3 years in a dry place protected from light.
A quality pepper is always expensive, but a small amount is enough as it is quite aromatic.
It should be crushed or ground (not too finely) only at the last moment, to prevent it from fanning. (A pepper "mignonette" is a pepper, or a mixture of peppers crushed).
Also avoid too cook for too long because aromas fade.
Finally, you can mix peppers in a dish.
The ripening green one will turn red (so red ones are often more easier to digest).
Do not forget to peel peppers with a serrated peeler, and remove seeds and inner white membrane.
The bigger the chilli, the less it is strong. When you touch chilies, be careful not to touch mucous membranes (eyes ...) before you have washed your hands! The hot pepper (cooked) becomes more pungent.
According to the states in the United States the pepper takes different names: "Chili" (tex-mex), "Chile" (new-mex).
If a chili is too hot :
-no water, and certainly no hot water,
-but dairies (milk or yogourt), bread, or rice.
Espelette (Basque country, France) Chili originally came from Central American. It is dried then reduced into powder.
Se dit d'un vin très légèrement effervescent.
Contient plus de 1 g /l de gaz carbonique.
On peut constater, au-dessus de 20 °C, l'apparition de bulles quand on débouche la bouteille.
Parmi les effervescents, on distingue en fonction de la quantité de gaz : perlant, pétillant et mousseux.
Vin effervescent qui, conditionné en bouteille, présente une surpression de gaz carbonique comprise entre 1 à 2,5 bars à 20 °C.
En France, seuls les vignobles du Val de Loire, ou du Bugey en produisent.
(Parmi les effervescents, on distingue en fonction de la quantité de gaz : perlant, pétillant et mousseux)
Un pétillant "naturel" n'est pas l'objet d'une 2nde fermentation.
Grapevine disease caused by the insect pest of the same name.
Native to the East cost of the United States, the larvae of this insect sucks the sap from the vine from the roots, killing it rapidly.
Imported into France in 1863, it killed almost all French and European vineyards within a few years, a disaster!
Having noticed that the vine varieties of the American East coast were resistant, the solution was to graft the fragile European vine varieties (vitis vinifera) on American rootstocks.
Cauliflower sprouts, broccoli, small onions, spring carrots, peppers, small peeled turnips, firm mini zucchini...
Peel all the veg (peppers included), except the mini zucchini.
Rinse the whole (wash the mini zucchini well), and cut it into pieces (about the size of a sugar).
Put white vinegar to boil, add the vegetables, return to a boil, then stop and let marinate with a lid until it cools.
Note: variants with cumin seeds, aniseed... (added during cooking) are possible.
Mix a little Dijon mustard (strong mixed possibly with a little Sweet one) with a good dry white wine.
Drain the vegetables, then stir them with the mustard + wine preparation.
Add a few sliced cornichons.
If you wish, you can add a little salt, a touch of Espelette chilli pepper...
Enjoy with cold meats, hard-boiled eggs, pâtés...
(Keeps for 15 days in the refrigerator).
Volume, plein, équivalent de 300 bouteilles (soit 225 l).
Quand il est vide, on parle de "fût".
Pierre à fusil
The city pigeon ( "biset" specie) is not the one we eat!
It is the "ramier " (woodpigeon) (which French hunters also call "palombe" or "colombin") which is tasted.
When hunted, pigeon is game (its red meat has a strong taste).
Bred pigeons are nonetheless tasty and have been a delight for gourmets for a long time (the Romans had columbaria).
Lords often held a dovecote. The more inhabitants it contained, the more the landlord had land.
Among the breeding pigeons, those of Bresse are famous.
A big pigeon weighs from 400 to 650 g.
Pigeonneau (young pigeon)
Pintadeau (young guinea fowl)
See Guinea fowl
For about 20 pita :
Dilute 12 g of dry baker's yeast in 75 cl of water.
Add 1,1 kg of flour Type 55 and knead.
When the dough is homogeneous, add 130 g of thick cream, then 3 pinches of fleur de sel.
Leave to rest for 1 hour at about 25 °C / 68 °F.
When the dough has swollen, degas it by kneading it a little.
Make balls of about 90 g, and spread one of them with a little flour.
In a hot non-stick frying pan, cook the cake on one side.
Then add a little rapeseed oil around the edges and finish cooking on the other side.
Do the same with the other balls.
Pour into a large container: 500 g of flour, 20 cl of water, 1 cube of baking powder and a pinch of salt.
Add 2 tablespoons of olive oil and mix.
Cover and let rest for 1 hour.
For a more detailed/tasty version, see one of our pizza recipes.
Plantation en foule (vin)
Planter la vigne avec une très forte densité de plantation (tradition avant la crise phylloxérique). Ni alignement, ni palissage. Grâce à la concurrence entre ceps de vigne, chaque pied de vigne donne moins de grappes, mais le raisin est plus concentré.
En finale, le rendement hl/ha reste à peu près le même.
23 - 79. Ecrivain et naturaliste romain.
Le livre XIV de son Histoire naturelle est consacré à la gastronomie et au vin.
Il adopta son neveu qui devint Pline le jeune.
The most common industrial pork is the white pork (breed: "large white"), which multiplies and grows fast, and produces very little fat. The same goes for the other breeds used by the industry (Landrace, Pietrain and Duroc breeds).
But there are also in France indigenous breeds:
-Noir (black) from Bigorre, (used for Noir de Bigorre ham)
-Pie noir from the Basque country, (used for Kintoa ham)
-Blanc de l’ouest (White from the West)
-Pork from Bayeux,
-Cul noir (black ass) from the Limousin and
-Nustral from Corsica (used for Prisuttu ham)
These slower growing breeds have meat with a tasty fat!
Even if contemporary industrial pigs get so much drugs that they no longer carry, in theory, diseases, we do not recommend eating them "rosés" (rare); the pork must be cooked (at least 80 ° C - 305 °K).
Pork was for the peasant of former times a financial security; it was killed in the middle of winter (when the earth no longer produces, but also when the cold facilitates the preservation of the flesh). (Indeed, "Tout est bon dans le cochon" - everything is good in the pork).
That's why the pork symbol is used ... for piggy banks.
We classify them in two main categories: firm flesh/waxy or tender flesh/starchy.
"New potatoes" must be marketed before August 15th; their thin skin can be eaten (It can be further refined by rubbing with a little coarse salt). They can't be preserved.
Some potatoes can be treated to prevent germination, so it is better to peel them.
As you peel, place the peeled potatoes in a bucket of cold water: to rinse them and avoid their oxidation.
If you cut them (slices, cubes or fries), put the pieces in cold water again (unless you want to keep the starch).
Potatoes sold with a "clean" skin have generally been washed and may ... rot. Likewise, prefer to buy potatoes with their skin.
Keep the potatoes away from the light, in a cool but not too humid place (so not in the fridge), and away from fruits (which often secrete a gas that can germinate them).
If a potato has sprouted, simply remove the sprouts to consume.
On the other hand, if it is green, it is absolutely necessary to remove the green tips which are toxic.
Only dishes suitable for pregnant women are suggested.
The rules used come mainly from the "Guide nutrition durant et après la grossesse" (AFSSA, Food guides working group of the National Nutrition and Health Programme (PNNS), 2007) and from the Action Sheet 6 "Women's diet during pregnancy" (INPES, Ministry of Health).
However, since each case may be specific, we cannot substitute to a meeting with a physician to discuss these topics.
ALCOHOL, which poses a risk to the fetus, IS TOTALLY PROHIBITED, whether in drinks or in food (Baba with rum...). However, dishes requiring alcohol or wine for cooking are not contraindicated because the alcohol has disappeared (example: beef bourguignon, coq au vin...).
What should be served to an adult who does not drink alcohol?
-As an aperitif, a citrus juice (orange, grapefruit, lemon), or a vegetable juice or cocktail (Mocktail) (tomato/celery, cucumber/mint, parsley, carrot/cumin).
-At the table, prefer a vegetable juice (and water).
-With fresh goat's cheese, offer a tomato juice. With a dry goat's cheese, a honey or lavender drink.
-With blue-veined cheese (blue, Roquefort...) serve a pear, apricot or plum nectar.
-With cheeses with a bloomy rind (camembert, brie ...) and washed paste (munster ...) offer an apple juice.
-For dessert, try a slightly sweet seasonal fruit juice (strawberry, raspberry, pear...).
-Finish with an infusion or a coffee, possibly decaffeinated.
Preservable up to
Re-usable simply, without much loss of flavor, and at least 24 hours after being cooked ("batch cooking").
This criterion can be used for several purposes:
You are not sure of your number of guests or their appetites, so you will plan a large amount, but can reuse ... what will remain.
You will not have time to cook on the day of the meal. You will prepare the dish in advance and keep it.
You rarely have time to cook (only on weekends) and want to have spare food for your week.
Spaghetti Bolognese with good tomatoes in February? You like to eat tasty food out of season, just prepare them in advance.
Prices (dishes and drinks) are rated on 3 levels. But beware, for the wines, the highest level can be "no limit" !
Primary aromas (wine)
Aromas coming from the grape juice before fermentation : fruits, flowers…
Primeur / nouveau (vin)
Vieille méthode de reproduction de la vigne, sans greffes.
On incline simplement les sarments en les faisant toucher terre, et… ils prennent racines !
C'est le marcottage adapté à la vigne.
Puff pastry is long to make. So, unlike shortcrust or shortbread dough, we suggest you buy it ready-made (possibly frozen). Make sure you buy a dough with enough butter.
However, if you want to make it, here is the detailed recipe.
Put 125 g of butter from Charentes or the East of France (a little less fatty than the Norman butter) at room temperature.
Put the flour (200 g, preferably type 45) in a fountain on the work surface.
Add 1 pinch of fine salt. Pour 10 cl of cold water in the center.
Knead so that the flour absorbs all the water (do not work the dough too much to avoid making it elastic).
Let it rest for at least 15 minutes in the refrigerator.
Weigh the dough then roll it out with a rolling pin on a floured surface (don't hesitate to refine the work surface), then place the butter in the center, spread out in a square shape. (The weight of the butter should be equal to half that of the tempera).
Press the butter into the dough, bringing the edges towards the center, and giving it a square shape
Roll out the dough into a rectangular strip 3 times the length of the square. Fold this strip on itself in 3.
Give the dough a 1/4 turn and repeat (roll out/fold in) to get this 2nd turn.
Let rest in the refrigerator for at least 15 minutes.
Repeat the rolling and folding for a 3rd and 4th round.
Let rest again in the refrigerator for 15 min.
Repeat the rolling and folding for the 5th and 6th round.
The dough is finally ready to be used.
Note: there is also an "inverted" puff pastry where the dough is enclosed in butter.
It is more technical and requires a cold work surface. The gluten of the flour, less laminated, will be elastic and the dough even more crispy.
Au nez : qui présente des arômes très marqués et intenses ; en bouche: caractère intense dus à sa richesse de constitution et un taux d'alcool généreux.
Conjugue toute les qualités dans une impression de finesse et d'harmonie
Le squelette végétal de la grappe reliant les raisins.
A ragoût is meat cooked in a sauce.
Raisonnée (vin, agriculture)
Démarche française souhaitant protéger l'environnement, la santé et le bien-être animal, plus qu'une agriculture conventionnelle.
Elle est réglementée par les pouvoirs publics, mais soutenue par les industriels de l'agrochimie et la FNSEA ; aussi est-elle bien peu exigeante. On l'oppose généralement à l'agriculture biologique, biodynamique, ou aux vins nature, démarches bien plus contraignantes.
Ranking of 1855
Ranking of Bordeaux Châteaux requested by Napoléon III for the world fair of this year.
Was actually done by Bordeaux courtiers (resellers) in 2 weeks and includes only 61 wines, all from the left bank of the Garonne.
Was almost not revisited since. This is more or less the same ranking as the one done by Bordeaux négociants during the XVII century (the one that was presented to Thomas Jefferson in 1787).
Critics underline that it is more a brand ranking than a soil ranking (many of the estates gained or lost parcels since 1855).
Ranking of 1955
Ranking of the Provence wines.
Based on terroir, know-how and fame. 23 estates were selected in 1955. Some do not exist anymore nowadays.
Ranking can now be contested since some estate started making 2nd or even 3rd wines and keep using “Cru classé”.
More over, new parcels can be added without any changes in the ranking.
Finally the ranking is never revisited.
Ranking of 1959
Ranking of Bordeaux wines from the right bank.
Peel and finely chop one onion.
Rinse, dry, pluck and finely chop 1 tbsp. parsley, 1 tbsp. tarragon and 1 tbsp. chervil.
Mix 1 tsp. Dijon mustard and 3 tbsp. wine vinegar in a large bowl.
SLOWLY pour in 25 cl of olive oil while whisking (as for a mayonnaise, possibly with a mixer) to emulsify the mixture.
Season with salt and pepper.
Add the onion, parsley, chervil and tarragon.
You can also add a few capers.
Avoid pre-cooked rice, "easy cooking" often presented in individual bags:
we do not know where they come from (only the place of packing is communicated) and many use a lot of phytosanitary products, on poor soils without mineral salts, cultivated with recycled water of dubious quality.
Prefer organic rice, or rice from Camargue, France (without any "waterfall", i.e. without water reuse).
Whole (brown) rice is more nutritious, but takes longer to cook than white rice (white rice is peeled off).
Basmati Indian rice has very long grains.
Avoid the hybrid rice Pusa Basmati-1 (PB1, also called "Todal") which use a lot of pesticides, and prefer the "traditional" rice (type "taraori") which is much more fragrant.
As a main course garnish, count about 60 g of dry rice per person.
Faire dorer des aliments dans un corps gras.
Rosé (vin rosé)
Vin élaboré à partir de raisins frais, dont certains, à la peau rouge, vont colorer le jus blanc en rose.
À ne pas confondre avec le vin "rosi" qui est un coupage de vin blanc et de vin rouge (donc un mélange, APRES fermentation). Seule exception en France, le champagne rosé.
La couleur n'a pas de définition universelle (peut aller du rose très pâle à un rouge clair). Les pigments qui colorent le vin proviennent des composés phénoliques présents dans la pellicule des raisins noirs ; pulpe et pellicule sont mis en contact quand on presse les raisins et en les laissant quelques heures, le jus prend la couleur (et les arômes) souhaités.
De préférence dans un mortier, pilez une tête d’ail et 1 piment rouge (sans les graines).
Ajoutez la mie d’une tranche de pain trempé dans le lait, puis essorée.
Mettez dans un mixeur et montez en ajoutant doucement l’huile d’olive.
Rectifiez l’assaisonnement (sel/poivre).
Faites fondre 25 g de beurre, ajoutez-y 1 c. à soupe farine et remuez bien avant de délayer avec 25 cl de bouillon (viande, légume ou poisson suivant l'utilisation du roux)
Faites cuire ce roux tout en mélangeant pour éviter les grumeaux (environ 10 min), et amenez-le à une belle consistance épaisse.
Assaisonnez de sel et de poivre.
Russian-style service (à la Russe)
Serve each dish successively (better to taste a dish at its right temperature), and in the order printed on a menu.
Other advantages :
- everyone eats the same thing, at the same time,
- and therefore everyone can share the same wine, which pairs well with the food.
This is in contrast to "French-style service", where all the dishes are served at the same time.
It was from the moment that the Russian-style service became mainstream that bottles were put on the table. In the past, "échansons" servants carefully hold glasses and bottles behind the guests, and served them on demand. (This made it possible to keep an eye on them to avoid... poisoning).
The Russian-style service allows the staff to exit the dining room when each dish is enjoyed.
This guarantees more privacy and or confidentiality to the guests.
Russian-style service became the norm in France at the beginning of the 19th century.
Several hypotheses, which are not contradictory, can explain this:
The Russian ambassador in Paris, Prince Kourakine, used to give such dinners there.
Then at the fall of the Napoleonic Empire, Paris was occupied by the Russians.
Finally, the culinary critic Grimod de La Reynière organized famous dinners with Russian-style service.
Practiced, according to legend, by Napoleon's hussars (soldiers).
Cool the bottle well (the cooler it is, the easier it will be. 15 min in the freezer helps, but some people plunge the head of the bottle into the ice).
Secure the perimeter (everyone behind the swordsman), then remove the metal foil and possibly (optional) the cage.
Hold the bottle by its base (the hand should absorb the shock as little as possible, and let the glass vibrate).
Point the bottle towards a safe place.
Follow the thread of the bottle (the junction of the manufacturing mold), make 1 or 2 round trips with the back of the blade to "mark the path". The blade should be at an angle of about 45° to the bottle.
Then go and shock the neck of the bottle. It must break taking the cork with it. (If the break is not clear, risk of glass splinters in the champagne).
Be careful then during the service, the bottle is very sharp (do this at the beginning of a party, not when people are drunk).
If you are unable to break the cork, do not open the bottle immediately (the champagne has been shaken). When you open it, do so carefully and protect your hand with a cloth (the glass in the bottle may have been brittle and may break).
It seems that in the past, the Gaulois sometimes sabotaged their wine amphorae (like cutting off the head of an enemy). Perhaps this is the origin of the practice?
Note: Preferably saber real Champagne rather than sparkling wine; it contains more gas which will exert a stronger pressure.
The plant (Crocus sativus) comes from Kashmir.
Not to be confused with Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) - the false saffron - which colors but does not bring flavors.
The saffron flower grows in October, then ... the leaves all winter.
The 3 stigmas make the filaments of saffron.
They are then dried at 70 ° C. for 30 minutes and then kept for 2 months out of the light.
Do not burn it when you use it.
-roast for a few minutes in the oven, wrapped in aluminum foil, and then reduce to a powder.
-or put it directly to infuse in a hot sauce.
Inventor of viticulture in the Western world.
His donkey inadvertently grazed the vines, making its grapes better the following year!
Saint of heavy eaters and heavy drinkers.
It's invoked to prevent... drunkenness.
Patron saint of winegrowers in France, probably due to the dubious play on words (Vin = Wine - Cent/Sang = Blood).
Therefore, the day of the saint's feast (January 22) is often the occasion for the celebration of winegrowers and wine.
A salmis is a ragoût (meat cooked in sauce) of game.
In Europe it is most often the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar species).
Pacific salmon (or pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) is a very different variety.
A traditional one is smoked after a dry salting.
It generally contains less water than the industrial one which is salted with brine (and often nicknamed "sausage of the sea").
The farmed "organic" ones guarantee that they are better nourished (without pesticides used against sea lice).
Pink color, astaxanthin, coming for wild salmon from ingested shrimp, is now usually artificial.
So a light or slightly pink color is therefore not a bad sign.
Salting/smoking, nowadays lower than in the past (it used to be a preservation technique), now allows a more marked taste of fish but imposes a consumption limit date.
Farmed salmon are fed/stuffed, with a lot of soya, to grow faster (in particular an American GMO salmon).
but wild salmon, very rare and of superior taste, is not necessarily without any toxic products because they are less controlled and swim... in polluted oceans.
In France "Label rouge" (red label) is a quality label, but for industrial salmon.
Whether it comes from the sea or from a mine salt is made of sodium Chloride crystals.
Different types :
- Fleur de sel: recovered from the surface in salt marshes. Ideal on a table (for example for radishes...), or just put on the dish (pan-fried foie gras...).
- fine salt,
- coarse salt.
Kosher salt is coarse salt with no additives. This term is often used in North America (in fact, it is not the salt that is "kosher", but its use, to make a meat bleed from its blood, which makes it kosher).
Additives are indeed often added to salt. To prevent it from clumping together, or to fight against certain diseases in France, iodine is added to it...
Depending on the way the crystals are arranged or the impurities it may contain, we also distinguish :
-the pink salt from the Himalayas (also contains iron ions),
-black salt from Hawaii
Maldone salt (UK), obtained by boiling sea water, as the Gauls did, has pyramidal crystals and a crispy texture.
Salt helps to change the taste of food. In small quantities, it increases, for example, the perception of sweetness.
In cooking, it destroys pathogenic bacteria and by selecting the right bacteria, can allow lactic fermentations. By osmotic reaction, it pumps the water out of the food and makes it disgorge (conservation and/or reinforcement of the taste).
On the other hand, it does not contribute to maintaining the green colour of vegetables during cooking.
The recommended consumption is 2 to 5 g/day.
Sangria or Rosegria
75 cl of red wine (or rosé for a "Rosegrita")
2 lemons (preferably organic)
2 oranges (preferably organic)
Cinnamon powder: 1 tsp.
1 vanilla pod
75 g granulated sugar
25 cl of sparkling water (Perrier type)
Rinse the citrus.
Using a peeler, remove the zests of an orange and a lemon.
Slice these zests into sticks.
Cut this lemon and orange into thin slices, eliminating any pips.
Squeeze the second lemon and the second orange, and collect the juice.
In a large enough container (water jug type) put the sugar, lemon juice, orange juice, cinnamon powder, and the vanilla pod split lengthwise.
Stir to dissolve the sugar, and fill with wine.
Stir well, before adding the sparkling water.
Add the sliced lemon and orange slices.
Cover the container with a wrap and store in the refrigerator at least one hour before serving. If you can store the jug for a full night in a cold place (but not the fridge to let the mixture "work") then put it in the fridge only 2 hours before sipping time.
If the wine is a little light, it is possible to add to the sangria a bit of Cointreau or Cognac and to darken the color with a little colored grenadine.
Do not confuse "Sardina" (living in the Mediterranean, Northeast Atlantic, or Black Sea) and "Sardinops" (Eastern Pacific Ocean) which is not a real sardine.
The best is: Sardina Pilchardus. In France only it can be simply named "sardine". The others must indicate the full scientific name of the species.
The sardine was nicknamed "The maritime ortolan" by the foodie Grimod de la Reynière. Ortolan is a wild game delicacy.
In a can we sometimes call it "pilchard".
Cooking of fresh sardines emits very strong smells.
If you want to scale yourself sardines, scrape them with a thick paper (kraft our newspaper) to prevent the scales from jumping.
As long as the can is not convex (sign of toxicity) sardines are edible.
As for some wines, they improve over time. The change of taste is noticeable 2 to 3 years after ... the deadline (flip the box every 6 months)."Puxysardinophilie" is the hobby of collecting sardine cans.
Sauce à la grecque
Clarify 150 g of butter (melt, but not cook, so that the white whey usually settles to the bottom of the container and take only the rest).
Rinse and dry tarragon, chervil and parsley. Chop them.
Peel and finely chop 3 shallots.
In a saucepan, boil the crushed peppercorns with the herbs, shallots and 10 cl of wine vinegar until completely dry.
Turn off the heat, let the temperature drop a little, then add 1 dash of cold water.
Then, put in a bain-marie.
Add 3 egg yolks, and whisk vigorously until the preparation becomes "white".
Then gently add the clarified butter while continuing to whisk.
Adjust the seasoning (salt/pepper) if necessary.
You can strain the preparation through a cheesecloth filter to remove shallots, pepper, herbs, if desired.
Alternatively, you can add a few chopped herbs just before serving to bring a visual hint of green.
Replacing tarragon, chervil and parsley with mint makes a sauce "paloise".
By adding 1 meat glaze, it's the "Foyot" sauce.
The Béarnaise sauce is said to have been created in 1837 in... St-Germain-en-Laye (restaurant Pavillon Henri IV, hence its name), by Chef Collinet (also of Béarnaise origin).
A variant can be made with clarified foie gras fat.
Sauce bordelaise (from Bordeaux)
Peel and finely chop 30 g of shallot.
Crush 8-10 peppercorns.
In a frying pan, sweat the shallots without browning with 25 g of butter and pepper.
Add 20 cl of tannic red wine and reduce by half before adding 2 dl of veal stock (or cube broth + water).
Boil again and adjust (salt / pepper).
Mix or filter with a sieve.
Add 50 g butter in small pieces and mix, whisking until the sauce is thick. It should be served boiling.
Faites fondre le beurre au bain-marie pour le clarifier (enlever le petit lait, c’est-à-dire la partie blanche qui se dépose généralement dans le fond).
Séparez les jaunes des blancs.
Mettez les jaunes dans une casserole et ajoutez 1 c. à soupe d’eau. Mettez la casserole au bain-marie et fouettez la préparation jusqu’à obtention d’une crème mousseuse et légère.
Incorporez délicatement et progressivement le beurre en continuant à fouetter (comme on le fait avec l’huile pour une mayonnaise).
Assaisonnez en sel et poivre, et terminez avec un trait de jus de citron.
Maintenez au bain-marie pour conserver chaud.
Brown the crayfish in a little olive oil.
Add the peeled garnish (carrot, onion, garlic).
Flambe with cognac.
Add the white wine and the tomato puree, then add water or broth to cover totally.
After cooking (about 20 minutes), crush the crayfish and pass through the fine sieve.
Meat and pork fat, chopped, salted and fermented and dried for several weeks in a pork casing.
Are sometimes smoked.
Do not choose industrial saucisson (they contain polyphosphates to stock water and be more heavy, glucose, added flavors, synthetic casings ...). Often sausages on the markets are industrial sausages, close to their eating deadline.
The "saucisse sèche" is just thinner (so you can not keep it for too long).
The "Jesus" is a swaddled sausage.
The "rosette" is done with the last pieces of the intestine.
But there is also the "fuseau Lorrain", the "Saucisson d'Arles" …
ensemble d'arômes et de saveurs (sensations gustatives perçues par la langue) très agréables
we only offer dishes:
-composed of ingredients of the season (in France) to which you make your search
-and pleasant for this season. (For example, black current liquor granita ingredients are available year-round, but it is not proposed in December.)
Le plus souvent pour un blanc ; vivacité et absence de saveur sucrée.
Pour les vins tranquilles (non effervescents), un vin est "sec" quand il contient moins de 4 g/l de sucre résiduel.
The concept was born at the end of the 19th century.
Originally, this wine, made by the same Château as the one making the first wine, absorbed the scraps of the first wine (less qualitative plots of land, vines too young, grapes with non-homogeneous maturity...).
Today, the fierce competition of the first wines gives 2nd wines which can be very qualitative.
They are more affordable (both in terms of taste and price).
Their names often evoke those of the great wines (the 1st wines).
Service à la française
Serve all the dishes at the same time on the table.
Some might be warm, some cold.
In the past, menus were huge with a lot of dishes. But all were not eaten by the main guests. Some were given to secondary tables or the servants.
Limits to Service à la Française :
-guests do not share the same dish at the same time
-a dish is not always eaten at its best temperature.
Opposit to "Service à la Russe".
By extension, it is also said when appetizers and desserts are served with the dish, and not with the plate.
Synonymous : Service à l'ambigu
Very important element in appreciating wine.
Temperatures are always approximate, if only because of the contact with the glass in which the wine is served. Serving glass being at room temperature (21 ° C / 70 ° F), the wine served rises very quickly in temperature. This must therefore be taken into account.
Avoid shocks of temperature rise during cellar trips, exposure to a radiator, a fireplace, etc.
For example, a red Burgundy wine leaving the cellar at 12 ° C / 54 ° F. must gradually reach - in stages - its operating temperature (16-17 ° C / 62 ° F), if possible within one day,
(suggestions: at the exit of the cellar, place the bottle in a place of intermediate temperature - veranda, pantry, corner of window without sun ... ).
The use of an ice bucket is practical to maintain a cool temperature, but monitoring is necessary to avoid "freezing" the wine. You can add a handful of coarse salt to the water with the ice cubes to lower the temperature and cool the wine faster. Finally, it is necessary to have a clothe nearby to wipe the bottle.
If there is no refrigerator or ice, wrap the bottle with a damp cloth or newspaper, the evaporation of the water slightly lowers the temperature.
Note: "chambering" the wine means bringing it to room temperature, at a time… when there was no heating!
For a rosé or white wine, one should refrain from adding an ice cube to the glass; it will melt and dilute the wine.
To prepare for a possible accident (corked wine, broken bottle, poorly preserved wine, great thirst ...), imagine a backup solution: either a second identical bottle, or another wine, and prepare its temperature so that it is ready, just in case.
For the tasting,
- grab your glass by its base (this avoids heating the wine too quickly)
-and wipe your lips with your towel before and after (to keep a more aesthetic glass).
Qualités aromatiques et gustatives (momentanées) sont masquées par les tanins ou l'acidité et rendent le vin peu favorable à la dégustation
If possible, choose big shallots (a variety is nicknamed "cuisse de poulet" - chicken leg.
Peel by removing only the first dry leaf, and leave the stalk attachment (so that they remain whole afterwards).
In a small saucepan, sauté the whole shallot in butter with 1 teaspoon powdered sugar.
Moisten totally with wine vinegar (you can possibly reduce the acidity by cutting the vinegar with a little water).
Let boil without cover, until the vinegar has completely evaporated.
(Turn the shallots once or twice during cooking).
At the end of cooking, add 1 knob of butter or a little olive oil to polish the shallots.
(Can be preserved in the fridge, and heats up easily).
Shortbread (Quick & delicious)
In a bowl, cut 120 g of salted butter with fine crystals into small pieces.
Add 200 g of flour, 1 small handful of sugar and 1 pinch of salt. (For a savory version, you can replace the sugar by grated parmesan).
Knead by hand.
After mixing well, add an egg yolk.
Knead until it no longer sticks to your fingers.
(If necessary, add a little white).
Roll the dough to the size of the pan.
Cut it in 4, and place it in the mold.
Piece and glue the pieces back together with a little water, using your fingers.
Sprinkle the dough with powdered sugar (for the sweet version). Note : this shortbread is really delicious, but easily breaks when unmolding. So using a mold where you can remove the bottom is a good idea.
Shortbread - Sugar crust
In a bowl, cut 120 g of salted butter with fine crystals into small pieces.
Add 200 g of flour, 1 small handful of sugar and 1 pinch of salt.
Knead by hand.
After mixing well, add an egg yolk.
Knead until it no longer sticks to your fingers.
(If necessary, add a little white).
Roll the dough with a rolling pin to the size of the pan.
Cut it in 4, and place it in the mould.
Piece and glue the pieces back together with a little water, using your fingers.
Sprinkle the dough with powdered sugar.
Separate the yolk from the white of 1 egg.
Soften 125 g of butter in the microwave for 10 seconds.
Place 275 g of flour like ring on your clean table.
Put the softened butter, 5 g of salt, 50 g of caster sugar, the yolk and 5 cl of cold water in the centre.
Knead these ingredients, gradually incorporating the flour.
Do not overwork the dough.
Historically this dough was used to coat foods to protect them.
When it was needed, it was broken. (in French,Shortcrust pastry is called "pâte brisée" - broken paste)
Spread a bit of flower on something (meat…), and roast it.
Souffre (Agriculture, Vin)
Conservateur (E210 à E215).
Sans aspérité, acidité et astringence modérées
Choose pasta only from durum wheat and water (if they have white points the size of salt crystals, pasta are probably made with soft wheat), and with as much protein as possible (from 10 to 15 %).
They must have been dried slowly at low temperature.
Also pay attention to the region of origin.
Finally, cook them in a large volume of salted water (use coarse salt).
Respect the cooking time often indicated on the package, taste them, they must remain "al dente" (that is to say, keep a little hardness under the tooth).
Then drain the pasta,
and rinse them quickly with warm, clear water to remove the starch,
then add a dash of oil to prevent them from sticking. Like all pasta spaghetti should be enjoyed very hot.
In a large white wine glass add:
-some ice cubes,
-60 ml Aperol or another bitter more artisanal (and less sweet),
-90 ml of sparkling white wine (some leftover are suitable),
-30 ml of sparkling water,
-a thin slice of rinsed orange.
Mix gently (to keep the bubbles).
Drink without too much delay (melting of ice cubes, and loss of bubbles).
The cocktail name and recipe come from the Austrian occupation of Veneto (Austrians soldiers softened their white wine with sparkling water).
It has become viral since the Campari group has remarkably marketed it to sell its Aperol.
Certains produits alimentaires basés sur des "recettes" (ingrédients et/ou savoir faire traditionnels) peuvent porter un nom protégé de Spécialité Traditionnelle Garantie (STG). Par exemple la mozzarella, la moule de bouchot...
Quand, en plus, le cahier des charges impose un lien au terroir, on parle d'Indication Géographique. ¨Par exemple : Le vin de Chablis, la moule de bouchot de la baie du Mont-st-Michel, la mozzarella di bufala campana...
Stock, broth (meat, vegetables…), glaze
There are different brands and types: vegetables, poultry, beef ...
The historic brand Kub refers to a quality broth. The meat is boiled for a long time in water and the broth is recovered. We start again with a new meat in the previous broth and then obtain a "square broth". The third time is a "cube broth".
Some brands offer organic broths.
Choose them without glutamate, palm oil ...
Prepare the industrial broths by dissolving them in a little warm water.
If you put more than one, then be careful not to salt the food too much.
But above all, you can prepare your own broths by boiling for a long time (2 to 3 hours simmer) in unsalted water: meat trimmings (bones, nerves, leftovers, carcass, etc.) and / or seasonal vegetables cut into large pieces. (Remove the maximum amount of grease beforehand).
At the end of cooking, recover the broth by filtering it with a fine strainer.
Reduce it if necessary (for an addition to a sauce) by re-boiling until the desired concentration. (Very reduced, the broth corresponds to an "glaze" of meat or vegetables).
Let the broth cool and then put it in the refrigerator until any fat solidifies on the surface. Then remove it (you can use it as fat for other cooking).
Store the broth in small amounts (for example in the ice cube tray in the freezer).
Fruit ne mûrissant presque plus après cueillette.
Les fraises ne doivent pas être stockées au réfrigérateur.
Préférez une fraise de plein champs à une fraise hydroponique (hors sol).
La culture et cueillette des fraises hors sol évite de se casser le dos, mais le terroir contribue aux arômes.
DATE, ROMANCE: Suitable for 2 people, elegant & refined, without odor / flavor that can annoy, nor flatulent effect, easy to eat and including the famous aphrodisiac dishes! If one cooks, select also "Chef w. guest".
IMPRESS: Fine dining (complex technic and / or scarcity of ingredients), for a purpose BEYOND the meal itself (e.g.: invite your mother in law for dinner, or your boss for a Sunday lunch).
SIMPLE MEAL: Ready in 1 h max, not too pricy and without ingredients very hard to source (at least in France).
LARGE GET TOGETHER (12+): Can be done by non-professionals (in a kitchen household). For more than 12 guests. Can possibly be cooked in a single oven. Little last-minute work (cutting ...). If hot dish, possibility to maintain it warm.
MEAL WITH KID(s): No residual alcohol, not too spicy, not too difficult to eat. You can decide if you want to add also a limit: of cost (Set your Cost criteria) and/or in flavor (Select Food constraint: Consensus).
BRUNCH: Suitable for tasting after awakening, (light).
SCREEN DINER (TV…): Can be eaten easily off the table and / or with the fingers, "finger food". No restriction of quality, Not necessarily for 1 person only.
APERITIF, COCKTAIL PARTY: Savory food that can be prepared in small portions and self-served.
RUSTIC CHIC: In French: "Canaille". Good classic regional dishes that are often eaten in the bistros between friends.
CHABROT: with sauce where you can pour wine (see Glossary: Chabrot)
TROU NORMAND: a shot of spirit might be welcome to help digest (see Glossary: Trou normand)
Qualités gustatives tactiles procurent une douce harmonie avec les qualités aromatiques
Sucre résiduel (vin)
Le sucre restant dans le vin, après la fin de la fermentation du jus de raisin. Il est constitué essentiellement de fructose. Quelques exemples:
3 g/l vin sec
White sugar is 99% sucrose.
Historically, it comes from sugar cane brought back from the Crusades (or from beet since the end of the 19th century).
In the past, only honey or fruit provided a sweet taste in Europe.
Sugar is not essential to our diet, because we naturally make it from carbohydrates.
According to the size of the crystals (which are more or less crushed), we distinguish :
- "crystal sugar" (or "crystallized"), often used for jams or pastries, because the large crystals dissolve more slowly.
Pectin and a little citric acid can be added to it, it is then called "gelling sugar" (in sorbets, it avoids them to straw).
- Powdered sugar" (or "caster sugar"),
- the "extra-fine sugar",
- Icing sugar (sucre glace) : it can also contain a slight addition of starch to prevent it from clumping with humidity.
Brown cane sugar (or "brown sugar", or "brown sugar") is the sugar before refining.
It consists of 95% sucrose and therefore only 5% minerals and nutrients, an amount too small to really play a positive role, but which gives a little special flavor.
The "vergeoise" is a cane sugar, with an additional baking, which gives it a caramel taste.
"Fructose", when it is without fibers (for example in squeezed orange juice), quickly saturates the liver and should be consumed in moderation
(it is with corn full of fructose that geese are fed to make foie gras).
"Sucre vanillé" (Vanilla sugar) contains natural vanilla extract, while "sucre vanilliné" contains... synthetic vanilla.
Some bottles are harder to find than others.
Use this criterion if you do not have access to many choices.
Conserver en dessous de -18 °C.
Le développement microbien est totalement arrêté et les aliments/préparations peuvent se conserver sans limite de temps d'un point de vue sanitaire.
Toutefois, comme elles se dessèchent progressivement, nous suggérons une limite "gustative" d'environ 6 mois. Il est donc utile de marquer la date de réalisation d'une préparation avant de la surgeler.
In the past the fish used for sushi was fermented.
The rice should not be too starchy (sticky).
Eat the sushi with a salty (not sweet) soy sauce and wasabi (an expensive root related to horseradish, not horseradish as it is often the case).
It is the fish that is dipped in the sauce (not the rice side), to avoid taking too much and masking the taste of the fish.
The vinegar ginger washes the mouth between each type of sushi (not between each sushi).
See our recipe.
1754-1838. Homme d'Etat et diplomate français.
Grandes molécules (phénols) présentent dans beaucoup de plantes (thé, rhubarbe, etc.).
Ils réagissent avec certains composés de la peau animale, de la salive... On les emploie notamment pour assouplir les cuirs, d’où leur nom.
Pour le vin, les tanins proviennent de la peau des raisins, des pépins, et de la rafle (le squelette de la grappe). Si le vin séjourne en barrique, ils peuvent également provenir du bois du tonneau.
Les tanins sont surtout présents dans le vin rouge. On laisse macérer plusieurs semaine le jus avec peau des raisins, pépins et éventuellement rafle. Les tanins ont alors le temps d’infuser. Ça n’est pas le cas du vin blanc, et très peu pour le rosé.
Quand le vin est en bouche, les tanins participent à sa matière et à sa sensation de toucher. En réagissant avec la salive, ils peuvent paraitre grossiers s'ils accrochent et dessèchent la bouche, ou bien fins et soyeux. Cela dépend souvent de leur maturité au moment de la vendange, mais aussi du type et de la durée de l'élevage du vin avant dégustation.
Originally little bits of fat that were put on glasses in Spain, to protect the wine from flies.
We then gradually began to eat them.
With HandSomm you can select the Category: "Amuse-bouche, Tapas".
Prepare the mayonnaise:
In a high-edge bowl, put the extra-fresh egg yolk (less than 9 days), 1 tbsp. mustard and 1 hint of salt.
Blend with the mixer.
Incorporate, while continuing to mix, the oil (half peanut, half olive) progressively.
Keep beating to thicken the mayonnaise.
Roughly chop pickles and capers.
At the last moment, just before serving, add to the mayonnaise and 1 tsp. vinegar, and mix.
With grape seed oil, storage in the refrigerator is possible.
The origin of the name 'mayonnaise" is not clear:
-in ancient French egg yolk was the "moyen"
-The cook Magnon would have invented it
-the sauce would come from Bayonne, France
-The sauce would have been created after the victory of Port-Mahon (Mahonnaise)
-The Dukes of Mayenne would have invented it
Traces of wine running down a glass after it has been swirled. Their thickness and slowness to flow can be a sign:
1-of a wine containing sugar (sweet wine, or simply containing a little residual sugar)
2-a wine containing a lot of alcohol (alcohol surface tension is lower than the water one). It is not the glycerol concentration that comes into play, contrary to popular belief.
3-a glass that is not completely smooth (cleaned with an abrasive cloth, poorly cleaned, or poorly rinsed).
Tears are more noticeable with red wine.
ajouter le tableau
Temperature (red meat)
Si vous disposer d'une sonde, piquez-la à cœur (ni dans le gras, ni dans l'os).
Recalibrez éventuellement en fonction de votre matériel.
Si vous pouvez, après cuisson, enveloppez 5 min au moins votre viande dans un papier (aluminium…) pour qu'elle se détende au chaud. (Ou bien gardez-la sur la porte du four).
(Dès lors, arrêtez la cuisson 5 °C avant les valeurs ci-dessous).
Saignant (toucher tendre, comme dans la main sous le pouce) : 63 °C
A point (dur comme au centre de la main) : 70 °C
Bien cuit : 77 °C
Ni trop acide, ni trop tannique, ni trop corsé mais équilibré
Prefer a rectangular terrine to an oval terrine (more homogeneous cooking and regular slices), with a pierced lid.
Provide a board of the inside dimension of the terrine, to be able to press/pack the pâté at the end of cooking.
Fill the terrine by compressing well and not exceeding 4/5ths.
Except for cooking with highly volatile elements (wine, alcohol...) the lid is sufficiently airtight (it is not necessary to "lutter"-seal it with bred).
For baking in a bain-marie in the oven, put enough very hot water in the dish (either by preheating or with a kettle). A baking parchment placed in the bottom breaks any waves in the bain-marie a little.
At the end of cooking, let it cool down a little, then using the board protected by a cling film, press the pâté, then leave the board topped with a weight (a can ...). The fat and jelly will rise to the surface and the pâté will be more compact.
As soon as it is cold, put it in the refrigerator (with the planchette and weight) for a few hours.
Then, remove the weight and board, scrape off and keep the excess fat.
Clean the terrine with a paper towel.
Just melt (microwave) the fat, filter it if necessary, and coat the top of the pâté thinly. This aesthetic layer also protects the pâté from oxidation. (Use the excess fat to fry food later).
A few days in the refrigerator will enhance the taste and consistency of the pâté.
If you wish to remove the pâté from the terrine, first unstick the edges with a fine knife. Soak the bottom of the terrine in hot water. Wipe it dry, then turn it over onto the serving dish. Put the unmolded pâté back in the fridge for 15 minutes to allow it to become firm again.
Then take it out about 20 minutes beforehand so as not to eat it too cold.
Terrines can be frozen. Ideally freeze it before cooking. When you want to eat it, defrost gently (1 night in the refrigerator), then cook it.
Terroir (vin, cuisine)
voir Indication géographique
Nicknamed given to the hole at the bottom of the bottle of Champagne, since its volume is about the one of 1 flute ! (but Champagne bottles still contain 75 cl).
1743-1826. Rédacteur de la constitution des États-Unis et 3ème président des États-Unis.
Historiquement on portait des "santés".
Fruit or vegetable (depending how it is used) coming from America.
When tomato becomes matures, it cracks. The agri-food industry has therefore selected varieties that are suitable for transport, have a long shelf life, and are...very red, but have no taste and are less nutritious.
Hydroponic cultivation amplified this loss.
The fruit has very little smell, it's the sap that has it. (That's why tomatoes are often sold with their peduncle.)
The acidity lies mainly in seeds and "gelatin" (often too watery).
The sugar and most of the taste are in the flesh, and sometimes a little in the skin.
You can remove the skin (see Monder or Emonder) on industrial tomatoes.
The old varieties, in season, and cultivated in the ground, are without comparison with the industrial tomatoes.
Fine herbs mix with tomatoes do increase the perception of tomato flavors.
If possible, do not store tomato in the refrigerator, but in a dark, cool, ventilated place.
For dried tomatoes, choose them without sulfur (to be eaten with moderation because quite salty).
For tomato paste, choose it without citric acid. Beware, industrial products sometimes contain much more things than tomatoes, even if it does not appear on the list of ingredients.
Ketchup is a VERY sweet sauce.
Tomato sauce (paste)
Peel and finely chop 2 shallots.
Peel, degerm and crush 2 cloves of garlic.
Peel and seed 1 kg of tomatoes (if necessary soak them a few seconds in boiling water to be able to remove more easily the skin).
Cut them into big cubes.
Prepare herbs (thyme, rosemary, sage ...)
In a frying pan, put 15 cl of olive oil and sweat the shallots and garlic without browning.
Season with salt and pepper, add the tomatoes and herbs, and simmer for 25 minutes, stirring occasionally.
Then blend or the filter.
Boil again and add a piece of sugar if necessary.
Correct (salt / pepper).
Prepare tomato sauces in season and freeze them for winter.
You can also make a suitable "express" tomato sauce by mixing a tomato paste with a cubed broth, a little water, salt and pepper and a little mustard. Beware, industrial tomato concentrates sometimes contain many other things than tomatoes, even if it does not appear on the list of ingredients.
Vin non effervescent (sans bulles)
Tries successives (vin)
La vendange s'effectue en plusieurs passages dans les mêmes rangs de vigne.
A chaque fois on ne cueille que ce qui est mûr (ou botrytisé si c'est ce que l'on recherche).
On attend que la nature fasse son œuvre (généralement quelques jours), puis l'on repasse, etc.
Trou normand (Norman hole)
French gastronomic custom consisting, for adults, in an interlude between two dishes, once the plates are cleared.
Serve each one a small glass of brandy ("hooch"), to drink as a shot, all together. Not for children, pregnant or breastfeeding women (you can offer them a substitute to join: fruit juice ...).
Usually, this is not the time for toasts.
Trou normand facilitates digestion, and restores appetite.
Generally: calvados (or cognac, Armagnac or grape marc) after meat; vodka or anise after fish or seafood.
Calvados can be eased with a spoonful of apple sorbet.
Note: if you have the choice, prefer to chabrot rather than a Trou normand.
The best ones are:
-Tuber melanosporum: black truffle (Can be found in Périgord, Vaucluse, Quercy ...). December to March, but January and February are the months when smell is the strongest.
-Tuber magnatum: white truffle (very strong aromas), Alba region in Italy. Shall be cut into chips. October to December.
But there are also:
- Brumal Tuber: Brumal (or musky) truffle,
-Tuber aestivium: summer truffle (beige when mature) also called "de la St Jean",
-Tuber incinatum (gray): Burgundy truffle,
-Tuber mesentericum: Lorraine truffle,
-Chinese truffle: cheap but without interest despite a look similar to the Périgord truffle,
Truffle aromas (oil ...): a pleasant complement to flavor a meal.
In France, in order for a food to be "truffé" - truffled, it must contain at least 3% black, brumal or white truffle (and in foie gras, only black truffle).
In France the packaging must have the common or Latin name, the one of the producer or packer, and the region of production.
Whole truffles are categorized into: Extra, 1st and 2nd. category.
Less qualitative are the pieces, then peelings and breakings.
The ideal is fresh, but if you by a can, prefer the "1ere ébullition" - first boil (more qualitative).
Finally, the price explodes at the end of the year.
Store fresh truffles (8 to 10 days max) in an airtight container in the refrigerator and use their aroma to add some fresh eggs in the container (they will get some aromas).
Freezing is possible, but loss of aroma and of "crunchiness" are important.
Cut truffles using a sharp knife with a thin blade.
Truffles grow in slightly alkaline limestone soils.
There are 5 major types of tuna:
-"Albacore" (Thunnus albacares) or "yellow tuna" / yellow fin, up to 2 m and 200 kg
-"Germon" (Thunnus alalunga), or "white tuna", up to 80 kg, pink flesh. Especially for preserves but good otherwise. Attention, it is this tuna (Germon) that Anglo-Saxon often name "Albacore"
Also, escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) is often "confused" with white tuna, but has nothing to do with it, and is toxic in large quantities.
-"Listao" (Katsuwonus pelamis), the most fished and the most common tin boxed
-"Patudo" (Thunnus obesus) or "thon obèse" - bigeye tuna, up to 100 kg, with big eyes
-"Red tuna" or "bluefin" (Thunnus thynnus) essentially Mediterranean. But there is also southern bluefin tuna or "southern bluefin tuna" (Thunnus maccoyii) and Pacific bluefin tuna or "Pacific bluefin tuna" (Thunnus orientalis).
At the end of the food chain, tuna accumulates PCBs and dioxins.
Sensitive people (children, pregnant or lactating women) must therefore limit their consumption.
All species (not just bluefin tuna) are threatened by overfishing.
The bigger the turbot (7 to 8 kg), the better it is.
It is then prepared in sections.
Turbotin = turbot of small size (generally less than 1 kg), but often of farmed.
Brill looks pretty much the same, but is NOT a turbot (the turbot is more tasty).
Turbotins and brills are usually prepared in fillets.
Drink very rare (difficult to find).
If you don’t have a lot of choice, filter to restrict drinks suggestions to ones easy to find.
Madagascar vanilla is the most common.
The Tahitian vanilla, very large, does not split naturally and can therefore be harvested later, at full maturity.
Its taste is a little rounder.
Store the beans in an airtight container, with 1 tsp of rum, to prevent them from drying out.
Once the beans are used, you can dry the pods in the oven, grind them into a powder, and use it in pie dough.
Remuer avec une spatule une sauce ou bien une crème pour qu'elle ne tourne pas, ou se refroidisse plus vite sans former de peau.
Se dit d'un vin dont les arômes reflètent essentiellement le cépage (généralement un seul) dont il est issu, et non le sol et/ou l'élevage.
162X-1671 Famous party planner (not cook)
In the 1660s he was General Controleur Général of the Prince de Condé and Nicolas Fouquet, notably at the inauguration of the Vaux-le-Vicomte Castle inauguration on August 17th,1661.
In April 1671, he was responsible for a huge banquet given by the Grand Condé in honour of King Louis XIV.
The Marquise de Sévigné then wrote that as the "marée" (arrival of fresh sea fish) did not come on time, he commits suicide, and ... enters the legend.
"Veau" (veal) can be used if the animal is 8 months old maximum. The meat shall still be white, and totally white for a "veau de lait" (milk fed calf).
1/2 bottle of dry wine, white or rosé (dry, still or bubbly). You can also use some leftover, even with a small defect. If you have less wine, lower the quantities of the other ingredients proportionally or replace the lack with a bit of water.
The juice of a lemon,
1 tbsp. sugar,
3 tbsp. olive oil,
10 g coarse salt,
Aromas: thyme, fennel seeds, anise, caraway, pepper ... in a tea bag,
4 cloves of garlic (degermed),
4 small white onions,
100 g of mushrooms,
1 green pepper and 1 red,
1 artichoke heart,
1 bulb of fennel.
Rinse, peel, and chop the vegetables into regular pieces.
Put wine, oil, lemon juice, salt, herbs, and sugar in a large saute pan.
Add all the vegetables, without overlaying them too much.
Cook on high heat and with a lid for 3 to 4 minutes.
Let cool in the cooking pan.
The vegetables should remain slightly crisp.
Verjus (vin, cuisine)
Jus de raisins encore verts et donc très acides.
Mix of white wine, alcohol from distillated wine, sugar and aromats. For example: Martini, Cinzano, Noilly-prat… Do not confuse them with "Vin Doux Naturel" (like Rivesaltes, Maury, Banyuls…). They don't have any additional sugars nor aromats.
À l'œil: robe limpide et très brillante.
En bouche: équilibré mais de composante acide marquée, procure de la fraîcheur.
Caractère propre à une vigne produisant rapidement un bois assez épais.
Vin de base
pour le champagne
Vin de goutte
Vin provenant d'un jus de raisins qu'on n'a pas pressés, mais obtenu simplement par le seul poids des raisins dans la cuve. Par opposition au "vin de presse".
Le vin de goutte est généralement supérieur (plus fruité).
Vin Doux Naturel (VDN)
Un VDN est obtenu ainsi :
Les raisins vendangés doivent donner un jus très sucré (252 g/l). (C'est donc uniquement dans le sud de la France que le climat permet de produire des VDN). Pendant la fermentation, les levures transforment le sucre du jus de raisin en alcool. Quand plus de la moitié des sucres a été transformé, on verse alors de l'alcool vinique (à 96 %). Les levures sont immédiatement tuées.
Le vin obtenu reste donc doux (il y reste du sucre), tout en étant assez fort en alcool (de 15 à 18 %).
Ce "mutage par l'esprit du vin" a été inventé par Arnau de Vilanova (1238-1311), médecin de Montpellier.
Les VDN font partie des vins de liqueur. On compte parmi eux : les muscats de Rivesaltes, de Mireval, de Frontignan, du Cap Corse, le Banyuls, le Maury, le Rasteau... les VDN ne sont pas des "vins cuits". Ne les confondez pas non plus avec les "Vins naturellement doux", qui ne sont pas mutés (par exemple, le sauternes).
Vinaigrette (Chef Alain Passard)
Mix 1 teaspoon of honey not too strong (like acacia honey...) with a lime juice.
Add salt and pepper.
Whisk in 3 tbsp. of olive oil.
Vinaigrette (salad dressing)
Mix 1 tsp. Dijon mustard with 1 tbsp. of quality wine vinegar.
Add salt and pepper.
Add 3 tbsp. tablespoon of oil of your choice and whisk.
If you add chopped herbs (chives, tarragon ...), preferably fresh, prepare your vinaigrette a few hours in advance so that they have time to infuse in the dressing.
In the south of France, some add a little garlic very finely chopped.
Some sometimes add a bit of vanilla seeds.
If you're drinking wine, beware of the acidity of the vinegar:
-Choose qualityvinegars and little acid, (the degree of acidity is indicated on the label) and put little of it,
-You can also add a bit of chicken broth to the vinaigrette, soft cooked egg yolk, honey…
Acetic acid, major component of vinegar, is the oxidation of alcohol under the effect of natural bacteria.
These bacteria need heat (between 22 °C and 30 °C), and a lot of air.
The "mother" of the vinegar is the waste residue of these bacteria. It should not be too thick for the bacteria to always have air.
Oxidized wine first becomes "vin aigre" (sour wine) and then "vinegar" when it no longer contains alcohol.
Apple cider vinegar is a little lighter than wine. Indeed, depending on the amount of alcohol present at the beginning, the vinegar will contain more or less acetic acid. The degree of vinegar is its amount of acetic acid per 100 g of vinegar (1 degree of alcohol produces 1 degree of acidity).
If the fermentation is slow ("artisanal" vinegar), many aromatic compounds are created, (unlike industrial vinegars made in 24 hours).
To make your own vinegar, start in a wooden or sandstone pot, with low-sulfite/low alcohol-level wine (easier for bacteria), or with cider. Some wine leftover, even a bit oxidized, is suitable but avoid mixing to many different wine types (the vinegar is not a garbage can!). Beware, bad wines do not make good vinegars! Also, avoid storing the vinegar too close to your wine stock.
Balsamic vinegar is obtained from a just fermented grape juice (4% alcoholic), strongly reduced by cooking, then aged from 12 to 25 years in different barrels. (The true, exceptional but of great luxury, must absolutely mention "traditional", otherwise it is probably added with sugars ... and is an entirely different product).
White vinegar has no taste interest, but is used for canning (pickles ...).
Vinification à la beaujolaise
(Également appelée macération carbonique) : le raisin est encuvé entier (avec sa rafle) dans une cuve que l'on laisse fermée quelques jours.
Une fermentation interne aux grains (anaérobique) démarre et dégage un peu de gaz carbonique qui reste piégé dans la cuve.
Cette fermentation produit peu d'alcool mais surtout des précurseurs d'arômes qui mettent en valeur le côté fruité et recherché du Beaujolais.
Ensuite, on ouvre la cuve, et on foule le raisin. La fermentation traditionnelle, cette fois au contact de l'air, démarre alors.
Vintage ; Why entering a year ?
Unless you have a particular year, do not enter a vintage and let us guide you.
A young simple Bordeaux (freshness, acidity) can pair nicely with a Big Mac (ground meat and white sauce), but will be preferable at its peak time with a Rib of Beef, and aged with a smooth Daube (smooth tannins).
On the other hand, if you enter a vintage, we will give you an order of magnitude (young wine, at its peak, or aged ?).
The year the grapes (used to make the wine) grew.
For "very late" harvests (ice wine in January, February… of year N), vintage is the year N-1.
Depending on the weather of the year of the place where the vine grows, we speak of "great" (or not) vintage, if it allows to make a great wine.
1694-1778. Écrivain et philosophe français, figure emblématique de la France des Lumières.
Warm plates (or dish)
If oven (not microwave) is available, run them for 5 min in a 150°C / 300 °F oven (fan heat if possible).
Or put them in the dishwasher in a hot, short cycle.
Or soak them in a sink with very hot water (but then wipe them dry).
For a dish or a few soup plates, fill them with very hot water (you'll need to wipe them clean afterwards as well), or possibly place them on top of a stewpot while cooking.
There are 3 different types of drinking water in Europe :
-Tap water: in France subject to standards of drinkability and very controlled. If it smells slightly chlorine, it disappears after a few hours in contact with the air. We suggest that you always keep a carafe of water. If you put it in the refrigerator, remember to cover the carafe, so that the water does not take other odors, and to change it regularly. Regarding lead, if in doubt, do not drink the first draft in the morning. (If you use an additive charcoal filter, be sure to change the filter when requested and wash your hands well before handling, to kill any microbes).
-"Source" (spring) water (bottled): subject to exactly the same standards of drinkability as tap water. (For this, it must not have undergone any treatments and shall naturally comply). However, the exact composition can change from one bottle to another (as long as the standards are respected) because several nearby springs can sometimes be used, even if the name remains the same.
- Mineral water (bottled): is not subject to standards of drinkability. It is therefore suitable for therapeutic uses and is not suitable for daily use of a person in good health. Indeed, some mineral waters (according to brands) contain too much of certain mineral salts.
If you buy bottled water, choose it in a glass bottle, if you have the option.
Still water is more consensual. Wait for a guest's request to offer sparkling water.
Whether you choose tap water, spring water (or mineral water for a specific therapeutic use), we recommend serving fresh (10-12 ° C) and non-iced water to be able to appreciate it.
Wait for a request for ice to present it using an ice bucket.
Finally, you can flavor your water with a thin slice of cucumber (peeled), or lemon (preferably untreated), or a mint leaf.
Which to serve first: Dish or drinks ?
In most cases, serve the drinks before the dish.
This way you avoid situations where people start eating and then, when half of the dish is eaten, you realize that you forgot the drinks!
In the case of a sweet drink (most often paired with a desert), serve the dish before the drinks.
Once you have a bite of something sweet (or spicy or strong flavors), the palate adapts to the level of sugar (or spices) and a sweet drink will taste much better.
The white ham (sometimes called "ham of Paris", even if it does not have to come from there) is buttock of pork (not the shoulder), cooked in a broth.
There are different levels of quality:
"Superior": no polyphosphates, no gelling agent, no caramel ...
"Choice": no gelling agent, but polyphosphates, and caramel authorized. (The ham is shiny, and we pay water at the price of meat!)
"Standard": polyphosphates, gelling agents, caramel, pork blood, dehydrated rind ... are allowed.
The ham can be with its rind (scalded and burned skin, as well as the fat just under the skin).
The cooking recipe is sometimes indicated ("torchon", "old-fashioned", in a broth with aromatics ...) but there are no specific constraints for the manufacturer.
A good ham is cooked with its bone, because it is more fragrant, but lets differentiate:
"Cuit à l'os" (the best): the flesh is left around the bone
"Cuisiné à l'os": There were some bones in the cooking broth.
Of course, a ham cooked without too much salt, and coming from quality pork (tasty breed, fed without a good diet, without GMO, antibiotics ...) is always better.
For 4 people:
1 kg of zucchini/courgette
2 tbsp. coarse salt
20 cl (200 g) of heavy cream
Ground pepper or 4-spice
Rinse and cut the 1 kg of zucchini into 4 pieces lengthwise. (Don't peel).
Remove the core and seeds with a knife.
Cut the zucchini into large pieces.
Plunge them into a large pot of boiling water with the 2 tablespoons of coarse salt for 2 minutes (or steam for 3 minutes).
Remove them and refresh with cold water to stop the cooking.
Squeeze out as much water as possible by handfuls.
Blend in the cream and spices.
Taste and re-season (salt/pepper) if necessary.
Serve cold or reheated in the microwave.